Basic Bladder Physiology and Anatomy

  • Venkat M. Ramakrishnan
  • Jairam R. Eswara


The bladder’s main functions are to store and empty urine. It has unique anatomy to achieve these. The detrusor muscle and extracellular matrix are designed to store urine under low pressures and empty with sufficient force to evacuate urine but not damage the organ. Adrenergic and muscarinic receptors primarily receive signals from the nervous system to facilitate this unique interplay of storage and relaxation within the bladder. Neurologic diseases affect signaling to the bladder and thus impact on its ability to carry out coordinated function.


Neurogenic bladder Detrusor Bladder physiology Anatomy Urinary sphincter 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Venkat M. Ramakrishnan
    • 1
  • Jairam R. Eswara
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Division of Urology, Brigham and Women’s HospitalHarvard Medical SchoolBostonUSA
  2. 2.Urology Services DepartmentSt. Elizabeth’s Medical CenterBrightonUSA
  3. 3.Department of UrologyTufts Medical Center and Tufts Medical SchoolBostonUSA

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