Advertisement

Forms of Plagiarism in Digital Mathematical Libraries

  • Moritz SchubotzEmail author
  • Olaf Teschke
  • Vincent Stange
  • Norman Meuschke
  • Bela Gipp
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11617)

Abstract

We report on an exploratory analysis of the forms of plagiarism observable in mathematical publications, which we identified by investigating editorial notes from zbMATH. While most cases we encountered were simple copies of earlier work, we also identified several forms of disguised plagiarism. We investigated 11 cases in detail and evaluate how current plagiarism detection systems perform in identifying these cases. Moreover, we describe the steps required to discover these and potentially undiscovered cases in the future.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG grant GI-1259-1).

References

  1. 1.
    Aizawa, A., et al.: NTCIR-11 Math-2 task overview. In: Proceedings of NTCIR Conference on Evaluation of Information Access Technologies (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Alzahrani, S.M., Salim, N., Abraham, A.: Understanding plagiarism linguistic patterns, textual features, and detection methods. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern. C Appl. Rev. 42(2) (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1109/TSMCC.2011.2134847CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Baker, J.B., Sexton, A.P., Sorge, V.: MaxTract: converting PDF to LaTeX, MathML and text. In: Jeuring, J., et al. (eds.) CICM 2012. LNCS, vol. 7362, pp. 422–426. Springer, Heidelberg (2012).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31374-5_29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eisa, T.A.E., Salim, N., Alzahrani, S.M.: Existing plagiarism detection techniques: a systematic mapping of the scholarly literature. Online Inf. Rev. 39(3), 383–400 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Fishman, T.: ‘We know it when we see it’? is not good enough: toward a standard definition of plagiarism that transcends theft, fraud, and copyright. In: Proceedings of Asia Pacific Conference on Educational Integrity (2009)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Foltynek, T., Meuschke, N., Gipp, B.: Academic plagiarism detection: a systematic literature review. Journal article in review (2019)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gipp, B.: Citation-Based Plagiarism Detection - Detecting Disguised and Cross-Language Plagiarism Using Citation Pattern Analysis. Springer, Wiesbaden (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-06394-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gipp, B., Meuschke, N.: Citation pattern matching algorithms for citation-based plagiarism detection: greedy citation tiling, citation chunking and longest common citation sequence. In: Proceedings of ACM Symposium on Document Engineering (DocEng) (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1145/2034691.2034741
  9. 9.
    Gipp, B., Meuschke, N., Beel, J.: Comparative evaluation of text- and citation-based plagiarism detection approaches using GuttenPlag. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) (2011).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1998076.1998124
  10. 10.
    Gipp, B., Meuschke, N., Breitinger, C.: Citation-based plagiarism detection: practicability on a large-scale scientific corpus. JASIST 65(2) (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1002/asi.23228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gipp, B., et al.: Web-based demonstration of semantic similarity detection using citation pattern visualization for a cross language plagiarism case. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (2014).  https://doi.org/10.5220/0004985406770683
  12. 12.
    Guidi, F., Sacerdoti Coen, C.: A survey on retrieval of mathematical knowledge. Math. Comput. Sci. 10(4) (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11786-016-0274-0MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halevi, G., Bar-Ilan, J.: Post retraction citations in context. In: Proceedings of BIRNDL Workshop at JCDL (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-017-2242-0CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Long, T.C., et al.: Responding to possible plagiarism. Science 323(5919) (2009).  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1167408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCabe, D.L.: Cheating among college and university students: a North American perspective. Int. J. Educ. Integrity 1(1) (2005).  https://doi.org/10.21913/IJEI.v1i1.14
  16. 16.
    Meuschke, N., Gipp, B.: Reducing computational effort for plagiarism detection by using citation characteristics to limit retrieval space. In: Proceedings of IEEE/ACM Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1109/JCDL.2014.6970168
  17. 17.
    Meuschke, N., Gipp, B.: State of the art in detecting academic plagiarism. Int. J. Educ. Integrity 9(1) (2013).  https://doi.org/10.21913/IJEI.v9i1.847
  18. 18.
    Meuschke, N., et al.: An adaptive image-based plagiarism detection approach. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3197026.3197042
  19. 19.
    Meuschke, N., et al.: Analyzing mathematical content to detect academic plagiarism. In: Proceedings of ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM), pp. 2211–2214 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3132847.3133144
  20. 20.
    Meuschke, N., et al.: Analyzing semantic concept patterns to detect academic plagiarism. In: Proceedings of WOSP Workshop held at ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3127526.3127535
  21. 21.
    Meuschke, N., et al.: HyPlag: a hybrid approach to academic plagiarism detection. In: Proceedings of International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1145/3209978.3210177
  22. 22.
    Meuschke, N., et al.: Improving academic plagiarism detection for STEM documents by analyzing mathematical content and citations. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries (JCDL) (2019).  https://doi.org/10.1109/JCDL.2019.00026
  23. 23.
    de Lurdes Pertile, S., Moreira, V.P., Rosso, P.: Comparing and combining Content- and Citation-based approaches for plagiarism detection. JASIST 67(10), 2511–2526 (2016)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stein, B., zu Eissen, S.M., Potthast, M.: Strategies for retrieving plagiarized documents. In: Proceedings of International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval (SIGIR) (2007).  https://doi.org/10.1145/1277741.1277928
  25. 25.
    Suzuki, M., Kanahori, T., Ohtake, N., Yamaguchi, K.: An integrated OCR software for mathematical documents and its output with accessibility. In: Miesenberger, K., Klaus, J., Zagler, W.L., Burger, D. (eds.) ICCHP 2004. LNCS, vol. 3118, pp. 648–655. Springer, Heidelberg (2004).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-27817-7_97CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Swazey, J.P., Anderson, M.S., Louis, K.S.: Ethical problems in academic research. Am. Sci. 81(6), 542–553 (1993)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vani, K., Gupta, D.: Study on extrinsic text plagiarism detection techniques and tools. J. Eng. Sci. Technol. Rev. 9(4) (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wager, E.: Defining and responding to plagiarism. Learn. Publ. 27(1) (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1087/20140105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Weber-Wulff, D.: False Feathers: A Perspective on Academic Plagiarism. Springer, Heidelberg (2014).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-39961-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weber-Wulff, D.: Portal Plagiat - Tests of Plagiarism Software. Online Source (2019). http://plagiat.htw-berlin.de/software-en/. Accessed 12 Mar 2019
  31. 31.
    Wolska, M.: A language engineering architecture for processing informal mathematical discourse. In: Proceedings of DML WS Towards Digital Mathematics Library (2008)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Moritz Schubotz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Olaf Teschke
    • 2
  • Vincent Stange
    • 1
  • Norman Meuschke
    • 1
  • Bela Gipp
    • 1
  1. 1.University of WuppertalWuppertalGermany
  2. 2.FIZ Karlsruhe/zbMATHBerlinGermany

Personalised recommendations