Compared to normal cells, cancer cells show epigenetic drifts, which are genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, histone modifications, and 3D chromatin structure representing epimutations. Moreover, many tumors reactivate programs of fetal development; i.e., tumorigenesis is associated with epigenetic reprograming. The mechanistic bases of cancer epigenetics are specific genetic, environmental, and metabolic stimuli that disrupt the homeostatic balance of chromatin, which then either becomes very restrictive or permissive. Recent drug discovery efforts targeted the epigenome and inhibitors of chromatin modifiers are tested in clinical trials and some were already approved for therapy.
Epimutation Epigenetic reprograming Tumorigenesis Hallmarks of cancer Epigenetic modifiers Epigenetic mediators Epigenetic modulators Epigenetic therapy
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