• Carsten Carlberg
  • Ferdinand Molnár


Nucleosomes are formed by histones, which can post-translationally become modified in more than 100 ways and in addition have many variant forms. The regulatory layers (i.e., dimensions) of chromatin range from single nucleosomes via looping of genomic regions to large-scale folding of whole chromosomes into territories within the nucleus. The accessibility of the chromatin at enhancer and promoter regions determines whether a gene is expressed or not. Furthermore, chromatin architecture imposes which enhancers are able to regulate the expression of which genes. There are various epigenetic methods for the analysis of DNA methylation, transcription factor binding and histone modifications, chromatin accessibility as well as nuclear architecture. Using these approaches, Big Biology projects have already collected a large number of human epigenomes that are publically available.


Chromatin Histone proteins Nucleosome Histone variants Post-translational histone modifications Chromatin architecture Enhancer TSS Gene expression TADs ChIP-seq Single-cell assays Genome browsers 

Further Reading

  1. Bonev B, Cavalli G (2016) Organization and function of the 3D genome. Nat Rev. Genet 17:661–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Buschbeck M, Hake SB (2017) Variants of core histones and their roles in cell fate decisions, development and cancer. Nat Rev. Mol Cell Biol 18:299–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carlberg C, Molnár F (2016) Mechanisms of gene regulation. Springer Textbook ISBN: 978-94-007-7904-4Google Scholar
  4. Klemm SL, Shipony Z, Greenleaf WJ (2019) Chromatin accessibility and the regulatory epigenome. Nat Rev. Genet 20:207–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Lappalainen T, Scott AJ, Brandt M, Hall IM (2019) Genomic analysis in the age of human genome sequencing. Cell 177:70–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pombo A, Dillon N (2015) Three-dimensional genome architecture: players and mechanisms. Nat Rev. Mol Cell Biol 16:245–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Schmitt AD, Hu M, Ren B (2016) Genome-wide mapping and analysis of chromosome architecture. Nat Rev. Mol Cell Biol 17:743–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Stricker SH, Köferle A, Beck S (2017) From profiles to function in epigenomics. Nat Rev. Genet 18:51–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Talbert PB, Henikoff S (2017) Histone variants on the move: substrates for chromatin dynamics. Nat Rev. Mol Cell Biol 18:115–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Zhou K, Gaullier G, Luger K (2019) Nucleosome structure and dynamics are coming of age. Nat Struct Mol Biol 26:3–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carsten Carlberg
    • 1
  • Ferdinand Molnár
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of BiomedicineUniversity of Eastern FinlandKuopioFinland
  2. 2.Department of BiologyNazarbayev UniversityNur-SultanKazakhstan

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