Advertisement

The Return of Religious Anti-Semitism? The Evidence from World Values Survey Data

  • Hussein SolomonEmail author
  • Arno Tausch
Chapter
Part of the Perspectives on Development in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region book series (PDMENA)

Abstract

Background: This paper addresses the return of religious Anti-Semitism by a multivariate analysis of global opinion data from 28 countries.

Methods: For the lack of any available alternative, we used the World Values Survey (WVS) Anti-Semitism study item: rejection of Jewish neighbours. It is closely correlated with the recent ADL-100 Index of Anti-Semitism for more than 100 countries. To test the combined effects of religion and background variables like gender, age, education, income and life satisfaction on Anti-Semitism, we applied the full range of multivariate analysis including promax factor analysis and multiple OLS regression.

Results: Although religion as such still seems to be connected with the phenomenon of Anti-Semitism, intervening variables such as restrictive attitudes on gender and the religion-state relationship play an important role. Western Evangelical and Oriental Christianity, Islam, Hinduism and Buddhism are performing badly on this account, and there is also a clear global North-South divide for these phenomena.

Conclusions: Challenging patriarchic gender ideologies and fundamentalist conceptions of the relationship between religion and state, which are important drivers of Anti-Semitism, will be an important task in the future. Multiculturalism must be aware of prejudice, patriarchy and religious fundamentalism in the global South.

Keywords

Relation of Economics to Social Values Index Numbers and Aggregation Anti-Semitism, MENA region Religious Radicalism 

Literature

  1. Achinger, C., & Fine, R. (Eds.). (2017). Anti-Semitism and racism: Current connections and disconnections. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Adams, M., Bell, L., & Griffin, P. (1997). Teaching for diversity and social justice: A sourcebook. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  3. Adams, M., Blumenfeld, W. J., Castaneda, R., Hackman, H. W., Peters, M. L., & Zuniga, X. (Eds.). (2000). Readings for diversity and social justice. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  4. ADL – Anti-Defamation League. (2014). ADL 100 Index. Retrieved from http://global100.adl.org/.
  5. Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D. J., & Sanford, R. N. (1950). The authoritarian personality. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  6. Alesina, A., & Ferrara, E. L. (2000). The determinants of trust (No. w7621). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Alesina, A., & Giuliano, P. (2015). Culture and institutions. Journal of Economic Literature, 53(4), 898–944.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alesina, A., & Guiliano, P. (2013). Culture and institutions. NBER Working Paper Series, Working Paper 19750. Retrieved from http://scholar.harvard.edu/alesina/publications
  9. Alesina, A., Algan, Y., Cahuc, P., & Giuliano, P. (2015). Family values and the regulation of labor. Journal of the European Economic Association, 13(4), 599–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Alexander, A. C., & Welzel, C. (2011). Islam and patriarchy: How robust is Muslim support for patriarchal values? International Review of Sociology, 21(2), 249–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Alexander, A. C., Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2012). Measuring effective democracy: A defense. International Political Science Review, 33(1), 41–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Almond, G. A. (1948). The political ideas of Christian democracy. The Journal of Politics, 10(04), 734–763.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Almond, G. A. (1996). The civic culture: Prehistory, retrospect, and prospect. CSD Working Papers, Center for the Study of Democracy, University of California at Irvine. Retrieved from https://escholarship.org/uc/item/4mm1285j
  14. Almond, G. A. (2002). Ventures in political science: Narratives and reflections. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  15. Almond, G. A., & Verba, S. (1963). The civic culture: Political attitudes and democracy in five nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Auestad, L. (2015). Respect, plurality, and prejudice: A psychoanalytical and philosophical enquiry into the dynamics of social exclusion and discrimination. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  17. Barro, R. J. (1996). Democracy and growth. Journal of Economic Growth, 1(1), 1–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Barro, R. J. (1998). Determinants of economic growth: A cross-country empirical study. Lionel Robbins Lectures (1st ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  19. Barro, R. J. (2003a). Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. International Library of Critical Writings in Economics, 159(1), 350–386.Google Scholar
  20. Barro, R. J. (2003b). Religion adherence data. Harvard University, Department of Economics. Retrieved from https://scholar.harvard.edu/barro/publications/religion-adherence-data
  21. Barro, R. J. (2004). Spirit of Capitalism Religion and Economic Development. Harvard International Review, 25(4), 64–67.Google Scholar
  22. Barro, R. J. (2012). Convergence and modernization revisited. Department of Economics, Harvard University.Google Scholar
  23. Barro, R. J., & McCleary, R. M. (2003). Religion and economic growth across countries. American Sociological Review, 68(5), 760–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992a). Convergence. Journal of Political Economy, 100(2), 223–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (1992b). Convergence. Journal of Political Economy., 100(2), 223–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Barro, R. J., & Sala-i-Martin, X. (2003). Economic growth (2nd ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT.Google Scholar
  27. Barro, R. J., & Ursúa, J. F. (2008). Macroeconomic crises since 1870. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Spring, (pp. 255–335). Retrieved from http://www.people.fas.harvard.edu/~jfursua/papers/bpea.pdf
  28. Barro, R. J., Sala-i-Martin, X., et al. (1991a). Convergence Across States and Regions. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity., 1991(1), 107–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Barro, R. J., Sala-i-Martin, X., et al. (1991b). Convergence Across States and Regions. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity., 1991(1), 107–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bauer, Y. (1993). Anti-Semitism as a European and world problem. Patterns of Prejudice, 27(1), 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bernstein, R. (1994a). Dictatorship of virtue: Multiculturalism and the battle for America’s future. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  32. Bernstein, R. (1994b). Dictatorship of virtue. Multiculturalism and the battle for America is future. New York, NY: Hoover Institution. Retrieved from http://media.hoover.org/sites/default/files/documents/0817928723_48.pdf.Google Scholar
  33. Blalock, H. M. (1972). Social statistics. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  34. Bowker, J. (2000). The concise Oxford dictionary of world religions. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Brah, A. (1991). Difference, diversity, differentiation. International Review of Sociology, 2(2), 53–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brandt, M. J. (2011). Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies. Psychological Science, 22(11), 1413–1418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mikołajczak, M., & Pietrzak, J. (2014). Ambivalent sexism and religion: Connected through values. Sex Roles, 70(9–10), 387–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Brym, R. J., Shaffir, W., & Weinfeld, M. (Eds.). (1993). The Jews in Canada. London: Oxford University Press Canada.Google Scholar
  39. Chzhen, Y., & Bruckauf, Z. (2017). Is university education more important for a boy than for a girl? Social approval of unequal educational opportunity across 21 countries. UNICEF Innocenti Research Brief. Retrieved from https://www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/IRB_2017_11.pdf
  40. Ciftci, S. (2010). Modernization, Islam, or social capital: What explains attitudes toward democracy in the Muslim world? Comparative Political Studies, 43(11), 1442–1470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ciftci, S. (2012). Islamophobia and threat perceptions: Explaining anti-muslim sentiment in the west. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 32(3), 293–309.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13602004.2012.727291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ciftci, S. (2013). Secular-Islamist cleavage, values, and support for democracy and Shari’a in the Arab World (December 26, 2012). Political Research Quarterly, 66(4), 781–793. Available at SSRN. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2920382 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ciftci, S., & Bernick, E. M. (2015). Utilitarian and modern: Clientelism, citizen empowerment, and civic engagement in the Arab World (August 8, 2014). Democratization, 22(7), 1161-1182. Available at SSRN. Retrieved from https://ssrn.com/abstract=2920373.
  44. Clauß, G., & Ebner, H. (1970). Grundlagen der Statistik für Psychologen, Pädagogen und Soziologen. Berlin: Volk und Wissen Volkseigener Verlag.Google Scholar
  45. Cohen, J. E. (2018). From Anti-Semitism to Philosemitism? Trends in American Attitudes toward Jews from 1964 to 2016. Religions, 9(4), 107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Connelly, J. (2012). From enemy to brother: The revolution in Catholic teaching on the Jews, 1933-1965. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Curtis, M., Mazal Holocaust Collection, Rutgers University. International Center, & American Jewish Congress. (1986). Anti-Semitism in the contemporary world. Boulder: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  48. Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., & Billiet, J. (2011). Cross-cultural analysis: Methods and applications. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Davidov, E., Schmidt, P., & Schwartz, S. H. (2008). Bringing values back in the adequacy of the European Social Survey to measure values in 20 countries. Public opinion quarterly, 72(3), 420–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Eisenstein, Z. (2014). Hatreds: Racialized and sexualized conflicts in the 21st century. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Ericksen, R., & Heschel, S. (1999). Betrayal: German churches and the Holocaust. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  52. Farnen, R. F., Dekker, H., De Landtsheer, C., Sünker, H., & German, D. B. (2005). Democratization, Europeanization, and globalization trends: Cross-national analysis of authoritarianism, socialisation, communications, youth, and social policy. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  53. Finch, H. (2006). Comparison of the performance of varimax and promax rotations: Factor structure recovery for dichotomous items. Journal of Educational Measurement, 43(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gidley, B., & Renton, J. (Eds.). (2017). Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia in Europe – a shared story? London: Palgrave Macmillan.  https://doi.org/10.1057/978-1-137-41302-4. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Glock, C. Y., & Stark, R. (1965). Christian beliefs and anti-Semitism (Vol. 1). New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  56. Gorsuch, R. L. (1983). Factor analysis. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  57. Guillaumin, C. (2002). Racism, sexism, power and ideology. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Harman, H. H. (1976). Modern Factor Analysis (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  59. Heinemann, J., et al. (2007). Anti-Semitism. Encyclopaedia Judaica. In M. Berenbaum & F. Skolnik (Eds.), Gale Virtual Reference Library (Vol. Vol. 2, 2nd ed., pp. 206–246). Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA.Google Scholar
  60. Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and organizations: Software of the mind. Revised and expanded (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  61. Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions, and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks, Calif: Sage.Google Scholar
  62. Hofstede, G., & Minkov, M. (2010). Long- versus short-term orientation: New perspectives. Asia Pacific Business Review, 16(4), 493–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hosseini, S. H., & Saha, L. J. (2018). How ‘Critically Open-Minded’Are We? An Australian Perspective Through the World Values Survey. Social Indicators Research, 136(3), 1211–1236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Huntington, S. P. (1993). The third wave: Democratization in the late twentieth century (Vol. Vol. 4). Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.Google Scholar
  65. Huntington, S. P. (2000). The clash of civilizations? Culture and Politics.Google Scholar
  66. IBM. (2011a). IBM SPSS 20 documentation. Armonk, NY. Retrieved from http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27021213#en
  67. IBM. (2011b). IBM-SPSS statistics 20 algorithms. Armonk, NY. Retrieved from http://www-01.ibm.com/support/docview.wss?uid=swg27021213#en
  68. IBM-SPSS. (2007, August). Statistical package for the social sciences, user guide. Version 14.Google Scholar
  69. Inglehart, R. F. (1988). The renaissance of political culture. American Political Science Review, 82(04), 1203–1230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Inglehart, R. F. (1990). Culture shift in advanced industrial countries. Princeton: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Inglehart, R. F. (2000). Globalization and postmodern values. Washington Quarterly, 23(1), 215–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Inglehart, R. F. (2006a). Mapping global values. Comparative Sociology, 5(2), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Inglehart, R. F. (2006b). Mapping global values. Comparative Sociology, 5(2), 115–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Inglehart, R. F. (2008). Changing values among western publics from 1970 to 2006. West European Politics, 31(1–2), 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Inglehart, R. F. (2015). The silent revolution: Changing values and political styles among western publics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Inglehart, R. F. (2018). Cultural evolution: People’s motivations are changing, and reshaping the world. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Inglehart, R. F., Ponarin, E., & Inglehart, R. C. (2017). Cultural change, slow and fast: The distinctive trajectory of norms governing gender equality and sexual orientation. Social Forces, 95(4), 1313–1340.Google Scholar
  78. Inglehart, R. F., & Baker, W. E. (2000). Modernization, cultural change, and the persistence of traditional values. American Sociological Review, 65(1), 19–51. Retrieved from http://scholaR.F.google.at/citations?view_op=view_citation&hl=de&user=r3vC6IAAAAAJ&citation_for_view=r3vC6IAAAAAJ:9yKSN-GCB0IC.
  79. Inglehart, R. F., & Norris, P. (2012). The four horsemen of the apocalypse: Understanding human security. Scandinavian Political Studies, 35(1), 71–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Inglehart, R. F., & Norris, P. (2003a). Rising tide: Gender equality and cultural change around the world. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Inglehart, R. F., & Norris, P. (2009, November). The true clash of civilizations. Foreign Policy. Retrieved from http://foreignpolicy.com/2009/11/04/the-true-clash-of-civilizations/
  82. Inglehart, R. F., & Norris, P. (2016). Trump, Brexit, and the rise of populism: Economic have-nots and cultural backlash. Available at SSRN. Retrieved from http://ssrn.com/abstract=2818659. HKS Working Paper No. RWP16-026.
  83. Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2003). Political culture and democracy: Analyzing cross-level linkages. Comparative Politics, 36(1), 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2009, March/April). How development leads to democracy. What we know about modernization. Foreign Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/64821/ronald-inglehart-and-christian-welzel/how-development-leads-to-democracy
  85. Inglehart, R. F., & Welzel, C. (2010). Changing mass priorities: The link between modernization and democracy. Perspectives on Politics, 8(02), 551–567.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Inglehart, R., & Norris, P. (2003b). The true clash of civilizations. Foreign Policy, 135, 63–70.Google Scholar
  87. Isaac, J. (1960). The Christian roots of Anti-Semitism. London: Council of Christians and Jews.Google Scholar
  88. Jikeli, G., & Allouche-Benayoun, J. (Eds.). (2012). Perceptions of the Holocaust in Europe and Muslim communities: Sources, comparisons and educational challenges (Vol. Vol. 5). New York: Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  89. John Paul II. (1994). Catechism of the Catholic church. Rome: Urbi Et Orbi Communications. Retrieved from http://www.vatican.va/archive/ENG0015/_INDEX.HTM
  90. Juergensmeyer, M. (2000). Terror in the mind of G’d: The global rise of religious violence. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  91. Juergensmeyer, M. (2011). The Oxford handbook of global religions (Oxford handbooks). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Kaufmann, E. (2009, February). Islamism, religiosity and fertility in the Muslim world. In: Annual meeting of the ISA’s 50th annual convention “exploring the past, anticipating the future” (Vol. 15). New York City: New York Marriott Marquis. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.500.6695&rep=rep1&type=pdf
  93. Kaufmann, E. (2010). Shall the religious inherit the earth?: Demography and politics in the twenty-first century. London: Profile Books.Google Scholar
  94. Kaufmann, E., & Haklai, O. (2008). Dominant ethnicity: From minority to majority. Nations and Nationalism, 14(4), 743–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Kertzer, D. I. (2007). The Popes against the Jews: The Vatican’s role in the rise of modern anti-Semitism. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  96. Klein, C., & Streib, H. (2018). Design, Methods, and Sample Characteristics of the Bielefeld Study on Xenosophia and Religion. In Xenosophia and Religion. Biographical and Statistical Paths for a Culture of Welcome (pp. 107–152). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Klein, C., Lühr, M., & Streib, H. (2018). Extant Empirical Research on Religiosity and Prejudice. In Xenosophia and Religion. Biographical and Statistical Paths for a Culture of Welcome (pp. 23–84). Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Knack, S., & Keefer, P. (1997). Does social capital have an economic payoff? A cross-country investigation. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 112(4), 1251–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Kressel, N. (2007). Bad faith: The danger of religious extremism. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.Google Scholar
  100. Kressel, N. J. (2012). “The sons of pigs and apes”: Muslim Anti-Semitism and the conspiracy of silence. Washington, DC: Potomac Books, Inc.Google Scholar
  101. Küng, H. (1997). A global ethic for global politics and economics.. Hans Küng translated by John Bowden from the German. London: SCM.Google Scholar
  102. Küng, H. (2002). Tracing the way: Spiritual dimensions of the world religions. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  103. Kuznets, S. (1976). Modern economic growth: Rate, structure and spread. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  104. Langmuir, G. (1990). History, religion, and Anti-Semitism. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  105. Laqueur, W. (2006). The changing face of Anti-Semitism: From ancient times to the present day. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Lasswell, H. D. (1948). The Structure and Function of Communication in Society. In The Communication of Ideas. A Series of Addresses (Bryson L. (.)) (pp. 32–51). New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
  107. Lenoir, F., & Etchegoin, M.-F. (2009). La Saga des francs-maçons. Paris: Robert Laffont.Google Scholar
  108. Lenoir, F., & Tardan-Masquelier, Y. (1997). Encyclopédie des religions. Paris: Bayard.Google Scholar
  109. Lenoir, F. (2008). Le Christ philosophe. Paris: Plon.Google Scholar
  110. Leong, C. H., & Ward, C. (2006). Cultural values and attitudes toward immigrants and multiculturalism: The case of the Eurobarometer survey on racism and xenophobia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 30(6), 799–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Lipset, S. M. (1959). Some social requisites of democracy: Economic development and political legitimacy. American Political Science Review, 53(01), 69–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Lipset, S. M. (1969, December). The socialism of fools—The left, the Jews and Israel (p. 24). Encounter.Google Scholar
  113. Lutz, H., Phoenix, A., & Yuval-Davis, N. (1995). Crossfires: Nationalism, racism, and gender in Europe. London: Pluto Press.Google Scholar
  114. McCleary, R. M., & Barro, R. J. (2006a). Religion and economy. The Journal of Economic Perspectives, 20(2), 49–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McCleary, R. M., & Barro, R. J. (2006b). Religion and political economy in an international panel. Journal for the Scientific study of religion, 45(2), 149–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Michael, R. (2006). Holy hatred: Christianity, Anti-Semitism, and the holocaust (1st ed.). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Michael, R. (2008). A history of Catholic anti-semitism: The dark side of the church. Cham: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2011). Cultural differences in a globalizing world. Bingley: Emerald.Google Scholar
  119. Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2013). Cross-cultural analysis: The science and art of comparing the world’s modern societies and their cultures. Los Angeles: Sage.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). Nations versus religions: Which has a stronger effect on societal values? Management International Review, 54(6), 801–824.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Morel, J. S. J. (2003). Radikale Kirchenreform. Für eine mutige Erneuerung. Innsbruck/Wien: Tyrolia.Google Scholar
  122. Moyser, G. (2005). European Religion in Comparative Perspective. Political Theology, 6(3), 325–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Muller, E. N., & Seligson, M. A. (1994). Civic culture and democracy: The question of causal relationships. American Political Science Review, 88(03), 635–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Neumann, P. R. (2014). The new Jihadism. A Global Snapshot. London: International Centre for the Study of Radicalization and Political Violence and BBC World Service. Retrieved from http://icsr.info/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/ICSR-REPORT-The-New-Jihadism-A-Global-Snap-shot.pdf.Google Scholar
  125. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. F. (2002). Islamic culture and democracy: Testing the ‘clash of civilizations’ thesis. Comparative Sociology, 1(3), 235–263.Google Scholar
  126. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. F. (2011). Sacred and secular: Religion and politics worldwide. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. F. (2012). Muslim integration into Western cultures: Between origins and destinations. Political Studies, 60(2), 228–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Norris, P., & Inglehart, R. F. (2015). Are high levels of existential security conducive to secularization? A response to our critics. In The changing world religion map (pp. 3389–3408). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  129. Parkes, J. (1974). The conflict of the church and the synagogue: A study of the origins of Anti-Semitism. New York: Hermon Press.Google Scholar
  130. Patterson, D. (2010). A genealogy of evil: Anti-Semitism from Nazism to Islamic Jihad. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. PEW Research Center, Global Attitudes and Trends. (2015). Retrieved from http://www.pewglobal.org/category/datasets/
  132. Plous, S. (2003). Understanding prejudice and discrimination. Boston: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  133. Popper, K. S. (2012). The open society and its enemies. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rausch, D. (1993). Fundamentalist-evangelicals and anti-semitism (1st ed.). Valley Forge, PA: Trinity Press International.Google Scholar
  135. Reisigl, M., & Wodak, R. (2005). Discourse and discrimination: Rhetorics of racism and Anti-Semitism. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rittner, C., Smith, S., Steinfeldt, I., & Bauer, Y. (2000). The holocaust and the Christian world: Reflections on the past, challenges for the future. New York: Continuum.Google Scholar
  137. Röhrich, W. (2004). Die Macht der Religionen: Glaubenskonflikte in der Weltpolitik. München: Beck.Google Scholar
  138. Röhrich, W. (2010). Rückkehr der Kulturen: die neuen Mächte in der Weltpolitik. Baden-Baden: Nomos.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Rosenfeld, A. H. (2013). Resurgent anti-semitism: Global perspectives. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  140. Rudolph, S. H., & Piscatori, J. P. (Eds.). (1997). Transnational religion and fading states. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
  141. Rummel, R. J. (1970). Applied factor analysis. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.Google Scholar
  142. Sacks, J. (1998). Morals and markets: Seventh annual IEA Hayek Memorial Lecture given in London on Tuesday, 2 June 1998 (p. 1999). London: Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  143. Sacks, J. (2003). The dignity of difference: How to avoid the clash of civilizations. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  144. Sacks, J. (2005). To heal a fractured world: The ethics of responsibility. Montreal: McGill-Queens University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Sacks, J. (2014). The religious other: Hostility, hospitality, and the hope of human flourishing. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  146. Schwartz, S. H. (2006a). A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5(2), 137–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Schwartz, S. H. (2006b). Basic human values: An overview. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Retrieved from http://segr-did2.fmag.unict.it/Allegati/convegno%207-8-10-05/Schwartzpaper.pdf
  148. Schwartz, S. H. (2007a). Universalism values and the inclusiveness of our moral universe. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38(6), 711–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Schwartz, S. H. (2007b). Value orientations: Measurement, antecedents and consequences across nations. In Measuring attitudes cross-nationally: Lessons from the European Social Survey (pp. 161–193). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  150. Schwartz, S. H. (2009). Cultural value orientations: Nature and implications of national differences. The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel Science Foundation Grant No. 921/02. Retrieved from http://blogs.helsinki.fi/valuesandmorality/files/2009/09/Schwartz-Monograph-Cultural-Value-Orientations.pdf
  151. Schwartz, S. H. (2014). Rethinking the concept and measurement of societal culture in light of empirical findings. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 45(1), 5–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Silver, B. D., & Dowley, K. M. (2000). Measuring Political Culture in Multiethnic Societies. Reaggregating the World Values Survey. Comparative Political Studies, 33(4), 517–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Skirbekk, V., Kaufmann, E., & Goujon, A. (2010). Secularism, fundamentalism, or Catholicism? The religious composition of the United States to 2043. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 49(2), 293–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Small, C. A. (Ed.). (2013). Global anti-semitism. A crisis of modernity. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
  155. Smith, J. (Ed.). (1988). Racism, Sexism, and the World-system (No. 84). Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  156. Spicer, K., & Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies. (2007). Anti-Semitism, Christian ambivalence, and the Holocaust. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  157. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights, MA: Allyn; & Bacon.Google Scholar
  158. Tausch, A. (2014, Fall). The new global Anti-Semitism: Implications from the recent Adl-100 data. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 18(3), 47.Google Scholar
  159. Tausch, A. (2016a, September). Islamism and Anti-Semitism. Preliminary evidence on their relationship from cross-national opinion data. Social Evolution & History, 15(2), 50–99 (Uchitel Publishing House, Moscow), and (2016, November) Journal of Globalization Studies, 7(2), 137–170 (Uchitel Publishing House, Moscow).Google Scholar
  160. Tausch, A. (2016b, April). The civic culture of the Arab World: A comparative analysis based on world values survey data. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Rubin Center, Research in International Affairs, IDC Herzliya, Israel. Retrieved from http://www.rubincenter.org/
  161. Tausch, A., & Heshmati, A. (2013). Globalization, the human condition, and sustainable development in the twenty-first century: Cross-national perspectives and European implications. Delhi: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  162. Tausch, A., & Moaddel, M. (2009). What 1.3 billion Muslims really think. An answer to a recent Gallup study, based on the ‘World Values Survey’. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  163. Tausch, A., Heshmati, A., & Karoui, H. (2014). The political algebra of global value change: General models and implications for the muslim world. Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  164. Tessler, M. (2002). Do Islamic orientations influence attitudes toward democracy in the Arab world? Evidence from Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Algeria. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 43(3-5), 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Tibi, B. (2007). The Totalitarianism of Jihadist Islamism and its Challenge to Europe and to Islam. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 8(1), 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. UNDP. (2017a). Human Development Data (1990–2015). Retrieved from http://hdr.undp.org/en/data.Google Scholar
  167. UNDP. (2017b). Human Development Report. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  168. United States Congress. (2015). Anti-Semitism, racism and discrimination in the OSCE region. Hearing before the Commission on Security and Cooperation in Europe, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session, July 22, 2014. U.S. Government Publishing Office.Google Scholar
  169. Weil, F. D. (1985). The variable effects of education on liberal attitudes: A comparative-historical analysis of anti-Semitism using public opinion survey data. American Sociological Review, 50(4), 458–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Werbner, P. (2013). Folk devils and racist imaginaries in a global prism: Islamophobia and Anti-Semitism in the twenty-first century. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), 450–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Williams, F. (1989). Social policy: A critical introduction: Issues of race, gender, and class. London: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  172. Wistrich, R. S. (1991). Anti-Semitism: The longest hatred. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  173. Wistrich, R. S. (2004). Anti-zionism and anti-semitism. Jewish Political Studies Review, 2004, 27–31.Google Scholar
  174. Wistrich, R. S. (2007). Anti-Semitism and multiculturalism: The uneasy connection. Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anitsemitism, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.Google Scholar
  175. Wistrich, R. S. (2010a). A lethal obsession: Anti-Semitism from antiquity to the global jihad. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  176. Wistrich, R. S. (2010b). A lethal obsession: Anti-Semitism from antiquity to the global jihad. New York: Random House.Google Scholar
  177. World Bank. (2017). World Bank open data. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
  178. World Values Survey. (2017). Retrieved from http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/wvs.jsp
  179. Wuthnow, R. (2008). The sociological study of values. In Sociological forum (23, 2, pp. 333-343). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
  180. Young-Bruehl, E. (1996). The anatomy of prejudices. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  181. Zak, P. J., & Knack, S. (2001). Trust and growth. The Economic Journal, 111(470), 295–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of the Free StateBloemfonteinSouth Africa
  2. 2.University of InnsbruckInnsbruckAustria

Personalised recommendations