Effects of Translocal Livelihoods on Rural Change

  • Malte SteinbrinkEmail author
  • Hannah Niedenführ
Part of the Springer Geography book series (SPRINGERGEOGR)


In this chapter, we discuss different dimensions of the effect of translocal livelihoods on rural structural change. Based on a literature review, the chapter is roughly structured according to the three dimensions of sustainability. Section 6.1 (“Economic Dimension”) focuses first on the effects of remittances and their use, second on the division of labor as well as the distribution of workforce and workload and third on innovation and the knowledge flow in translocal contexts. Section 6.2 (“Ecological Dimension”) centers around the reciprocal relationship between translocality and changing the natural environment. Here, we argue for conceptually combining the socio-ecological systems approach with the concept of translocality (“translocal socio-ecological systems”), which would enable researchers not only to consider the effects of environmental change on migration (and translocalization) but also to analyze the feedback effects of translocality on the environment. Section 6.3 (“Social Dimension”) primarily spotlights education , gender and health , and on the questions, (1) to what degree these central social aspects are connected to migration and the translocality of livelihoods, and (2) whether we can discern a shift in values in these areas due to translocality. In sum, this chapter highlights how the economic, ecological and social dynamics of (rural) change are deeply interwoven in the context of translocal livelihoods.


Rural change Economic development Remittances Labor Knowledge transfer Innovation Natural environment Education Gender Health 


  1. Abdool Karim Q, Abdool Karim SS, Singh B, Short R, Ngxongo S (1992) Seroprevalence of HIV infection in rural South Africa. AIDS 6(12):1535–1539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdulkadir H, Abdullahi A (2018) Factors influencing women access to land in Bichi local. Int J Inform Res Rev 5(4):5395–5398Google Scholar
  3. Abdul-Korah GB (2011) ‘Now if you have only sons you are dead’: Migration, gender, and family economy in twentieth century northwestern Ghana. J Asian Afr Stud 46(4):390–403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. ACP (2012) Transnational families and the social and gender impact of mobility in ACP countries. Background Note: ACPOBS/BN06Google Scholar
  5. Adepoju A (2005) Migration in West Africa. Global Commission on International Migration. Human Resources Development Centre, LagosGoogle Scholar
  6. Adepoju A (2008) Migration in Subsaharan Africa. The Current African Issues 37. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, UppsalaGoogle Scholar
  7. Adger NW (2006) Vulnerability. Glob Environ Change 16:264–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Afifi T (2009) Niger: case study report. EACH-FOR environmental change and forced migration scenarios. Available via EACH-FOR. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  9. Ajani EN, Igbokwe EM (2011) Implications of feminization of agriculture on women farmers in Anambra State Nigeria. J Agric Ext 15(1):31–39Google Scholar
  10. Ajanovic E (2014) Remittances—More than money? Konzeptionelle Überlegungen zum Verständnis von Rücküberweisungen von MigrantInnen in ihre Sendeländer. In: Ataç I, Fanizadeh M, Kraler A, Manzenreiter W (eds) Migration und Entwicklung. Neue Perspektiven, Wien, pp 101–116Google Scholar
  11. Aklilu Y, Catley A (2010) MIND THE GAP. Commercialization, Livelihoods and Wealth Disparity in Pastoralist Areas of Ethiopia. Feinstein International CentreGoogle Scholar
  12. Ambrosius C, Fritz B, Stiegler U (2008) Geldsendungen von Migranten—‚Manna‘ für die wirtschaftliche Entwicklung? GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies—Leibniz-Institut für Globale und Regionale Studien, HamburgGoogle Scholar
  13. Anarfi JK (1993) Sexuality, migration and AIDS in Ghana—a socio-behavioural study. Health Trans Rev 3:45–67Google Scholar
  14. Anker R, Hein C (1986) Introduction and overview. In: Anker R, Hein C (eds) Sex inequalities in urban employment in the third world. St. Martin`s Press, New York, pp 1–56Google Scholar
  15. Aufenvenne P, Felgentreff C (2013) Umweltmigranten und Klimaflüchtlinge – zweifelhafte Kategorien in der aktuellen Debatte. IMIS-Beiträge 44:19–44Google Scholar
  16. Aufenvenne P, Felgentreff C, Heller W (2013) Klimaflucht und Umweltmigration – diskussionswürdige Begriffe. In: Reilich J, Frohwerk S (eds) Eine Sonate der Ökonomie – Sätze zur allgemeinen Theorie, der Raumwirtschaft und der Klimapolitik. Festschrift für Klaus Schöler zum 65. Geburtstag. S. Roderer-Verlag, Magdeburg, pp 25–51Google Scholar
  17. Awumbila M (2015) Women moving within borders. Gender and internal migration dynamics in Ghana. Ghana J Geogr 7(2):132–145Google Scholar
  18. Awumbila M, Darkwah A, Teye J (2015) Migration, intra-household dynamics and youth aspirations. Unpublished Paper. Migrating out of Poverty, University of SussexGoogle Scholar
  19. Ayana Aga G, Martinez P, Soledad M (2014) International remittances and financial inclusion in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Policy Research Working Paper 6991, World BankGoogle Scholar
  20. Baker J (1994) Small urban centres and their role in rural restructuring. In: Zegeye A, Pausewang S (eds) Ethiopia in change. Peasantry, Nationalism and Democracy. British Academic Press, London/New York, pp 152–171Google Scholar
  21. Barrett C, Reardon T, Webb P (2001) Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in Rural Africa: concepts dynamics and policy implications. Food Policy 26(4):315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Batista C, Lacuesta A, Vicente PC (2010) Testing the ‘Brain Gain’ hypothesis: micro evidence from cape verde. J Dev Econ 97(1):32–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Beguy D, Bocquier P, Zulu EM (2010) Circular migration patterns and determinants in Nairobi slum settlements. Demogr Res 23:549–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Black R, Bennett S, Thomas SM, Beddington JR (2011) Climate change: migration as adaptation. Nature 478(7370):447–449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Blasche M, Inhetveen H (1983) Frauen in der kleinbäuerlichen Landwirtschaft. Westdeutscher Verlag, OpladenGoogle Scholar
  26. Bodin Ö, Crona B, Ernstson H (2005) Social networks in natural resource management: what is there to learn from a structural perspective? Available via Ecology and Society. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  27. Bogardi J, Warner K (2009) Here comes the flood. Nat Reports Clim Change 3:9–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bor J, Herbst AJ, Newell ML, Bärnighausen T (2013) Increases in adult life expectancy in rural South Africa; valuing the scale-up of HIV treatment. Science 339(6122):961–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Brockerhoff M, Eu H (1993) Demographic and socioeconomic determinants of female rural to urban migration in Sub-Saharan Africa. Int Migrat Rev 27(3):557–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bryceson DF (2019) Gender and generational patterns of African deagrarianization: evolving labor and land allocation in smallholder peasant household farming, 1980–2015. World Dev 113:60–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Calì M, Cantore N (2010) The impact of circular migration on source countries: a simulation exercise. Overseas Development InstituteGoogle Scholar
  32. Carr ER (2005) Placing the environment in migration: environment economy and power in Ghana’s central region. Environ Plan A: Econ Space 37(5):925–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Castaldo A, Deshingkar P, McKay A (2012) Internal migration, remittances and poverty: evidence from Ghana and India. University of Sussex. Available via Migrating out of Poverty. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  34. Clark SJ, Collinson MA, Kahn K, Drullinger K, Tollman SM (2007) Returning home to die: circular labour migration and mortality in South Africa. Scand J Public Health 69:35–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Coffee M, Lurie MN, Garnett GP (2007) Modelling the impact of migration on the HIV epidemic in South Africa. AIDS 21(3):343–350CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Conelly T (1994) Population pressure, labor availability, and agricultural disintensification: the decline of farming on Rusinga Island, Kenya. Human Ecol 22(2):145–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Corno L, de Walque D (2012) Mines migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. J Afr Econ 21(3):465–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cottyn I, Schapendonk J (2013) Mobility in Sub-Saharan Africa: patterns, processes and policies. Rurban Africa: State of the Art Report 2, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  39. Cotula L, Toulmin C (eds) (2004) Till to tiller: international migration, remittances and land rights in West Africa. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. De Haan A (2000) Migrants, livelihoods, and rights: the relevance of migration in development policies. Social Development Working Paper 4, LondonGoogle Scholar
  41. De Haan A (2006) Migration in the development studies literature: has it come out of its marginality? Research Paper 19, United Nations UniversityGoogle Scholar
  42. De Haas H (2010) Migration and development: a theoretical perspective. Int Migrat Rev 1(44):227–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. De Haas H, van Rooij A (2010) Migration as emancipation? The impact of internal and international migration on the position of women in rural Morocco. Oxf Dev Stud 38:43–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Deshingkar P (2004) Understanding the implications of migration for pro-poor agricultural growth. Overseas Development InstituteGoogle Scholar
  45. Dilger H (2013) Securing wealth, ordering social relations: kinship, morality, and the configuration of subjectivity and belonging across the rural-urban divide. In: Kane A, Leedy T (eds) African migrations: patterns and perspectives. University Press, Bloomington, pp 113–132Google Scholar
  46. Dinan C (1983) Sugar daddies and gold-diggers: the white-collar single women in Accra. In: Oppong C (ed) Female and male in West Africa. George Allen and Unwin, London, pp 344–366Google Scholar
  47. Docquier F, Vasilakis Ch, Tamfutu Munsi D (2011) International migration and the propagation of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J Health Econ 35:20–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dorlöchter-Sulser S (2014) Wandel von Livelihood-Systemen im Spannungsfeld von Struktur und Handeln, eine historisch angelegte Livelihood-Analyse von 1960 bis 2010 am Beispiel der Region Dosso, Niger. Wvb, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  49. Doss C, McPeak J, Barrett C (2006) Interpersonal, intertemporal and spatial variation in risk perceptions: evidence from East Africa. World Dev 36(8):1453–1468CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ekbom A, Knutsson P, Ovuka M (2001) Is sustainable development based on agriculture attainable in Kenya? A multidisciplinary case study of Murang’a district land. Degrad Dev 12(5):435–447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Etzold B (2017) Mobility, space and livelihood trajectories: new perspectives on migration, translocality and place-making for livelihood studies. In: De Haan L (ed) Livelihoods and development: new perspectives. Brill, Leiden, pp 44–68Google Scholar
  52. Evans HE, Ngau P (1991) Rural-urban relations, household income diversification and agricultural productivity. Dev Change 22:519–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. FAO (2003) Gender—Key to sustainability and food security. Available via FAO. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  54. FAO (2011) The state of food and agriculture, women in agriculture, closing the gender gap for development. Available via FAO. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  55. FAO (2016) Gender and land statistics. Available via FAO. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  56. Findley SE (1994) Does drought increase migration? A study of migration from rural Mali during the 1983–1984 drought. Int Migrat Rev 28(3):539–553Google Scholar
  57. Folke C (2006) Resilience: the emergence of a perspective of social-ecological systems analyses. Glob Environ Change 16:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Folke C, Carpenter S, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockstrom J (2010) Resilience thinking: integrating resilience adaptability and transformability. Ecol Soc 15(4):20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Foster G, Williamson J (2000) A review of current literature of the impact of HIV/AIDS on children in Sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS 14(3):275–284Google Scholar
  60. Francis E (2002) Gender migration and multiple livelihoods: cases from eastern and southern Africa. J Dev Stud 38(5):167–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Gallopín G (2006) Linkages between vulnerability resilience and adaptive capacity. Glob Environ Change 16:293–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Godoy J, Tortora B, Sonnenschein J, Kendall J (2012) Payments and money transfer behavior of Sub-Saharan Africans. Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, GALLUP. Available via findevgateway. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  63. Greiner C (2008) Zwischen Ziegenkraal und Township: Migrationsprozesse in Nordwest-Namibia. Dietrich Reimer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  64. Greiner C (2011) Migration, translocal networks and socio-economic stratification in Namibia. Africa 81(4):606–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Greiner C, Peth S, Sakdapolrak P (2014) Deciphering migration in the age of climate change: towards an understanding of translocal relations in social-ecological systems. In: TransRe Working Paper, vol 2, Department of Geography, University of Bonn, BonnGoogle Scholar
  66. Greiner C, Sakdapolrak P (2012) Rural-urban migration, agrarian change, and the environment in Kenya: a critical review of the literature. Popul Environ 34(4):524–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Grosz-Ngaté M (1991) Gender generation and power labor migration as a terrain of contest in rural Mali. Institute for African Development, Cornell UniversityGoogle Scholar
  68. Gugler J, Ludwar-Ene G (1995) Gender and migration in Africa South of the Sahara. In: Baker J, Aina TA (eds) (1995) The migration experience in Africa. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Sweden, pp 257–269Google Scholar
  69. Guigou B, Leriollais A (1992) Crise de l’agriculture et marginalization économique des femmes sereer siin (Sénégal). Sociétés Espaces Temps 1:45–64Google Scholar
  70. Haferburg C, Steinbrink M (2017) Mega-events in emerging nations and the festivalization of the urban backstage. The cases of Rio de Janeiro and South Africa. In: Hannigan J, Richards G (eds) Handbook of new urban studies. Los Angeles, SAGE, pp 267–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Hahn HP (2004) Zirkuläre Arbeitsmigration in Westafrika und die, Kultur der Migration‘. Afr Spectr 39:381–404Google Scholar
  72. Hamer A (1981) Diola women and migration: a case study. In: Colvin LG, Ba C, Barry B, Faye J (eds) The uprooted of the Western Sahel. Praeger, New York, pp 163–203Google Scholar
  73. Helgesson Sekei L, Alvater A, Mrema J C, Kisinda A (2014) Back home: exploring the potential of South-South social remittances in the United Republic of Tanzania. Research Report, Brussels, ACPGoogle Scholar
  74. Hollos M (1991) Migration, education and the status of women in Southern Nigeria. Am Anthropol 93:852–870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hummel D (2015) Gendereinflüsse und soziale Differenzierungen der klimabedingten Migration. Available via Klimanavigator. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  76. IHSN Survey Catalog (2005) Ghana living standard survey. Available via IHSN. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  77. Ijumba P, Day C, Ntuli A (2004) A South African health review 2003/2004. Health System Trust, DurbanGoogle Scholar
  78. IOM (2002) Labour migration and HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa. International Organization for Migration, Regional Office for Southern Africa. Available via Researchgate. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  79. IOM (2010) The future of migration: building capacities for change. International Organization for Migration-World Migration Report 2010. Available via IOM. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  80. IOM (2013) Migration and development within the south: new evidence from African Caribbean and Pacific countries. International Organization for Migration-Migration Research Series 46. Available via IOM. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  81. Jónsson G (2010) The environmental factor in migration dynamics—a review of African case studies. International Migration Institute Working Paper 21, University of OxfordGoogle Scholar
  82. Kenyon C, Buyce J, Colebunders R (2014) Classification of incidence and prevalence of certain sexually transmitted infections by world regions. Int J Infect Dis 18:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. KNOMAD (2016) Migration and remittances: recent developments and outlook. Migration and Development Brief 26Google Scholar
  84. Konotey-Ahulu F (1989) What is AIDS? Tetteh-A’Domeno Company, WorcesterGoogle Scholar
  85. Langthaler M, Scharer V (2005) Bildungsökonomisierung in den Entwicklungsländern: Formen, Auswirkungen und Implikationen für die Bildungszusammenarbeit, Working Paper, No. 6, Austrian Foundation for Development Research (ÖFSE), ViennaGoogle Scholar
  86. Lastarria-Cornhiel S (2008) Feminization of agriculture: trends and driving forces. Working Paper 08, World Development Report Background Papers. Available via World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  87. Levitt P (1998) Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion. Int Migr Rev 32(4):926–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Levitt P, Lamba-Nieves D (2011) Social remittances revisited. J Ethn Migr Stud 37(1):1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Lewis LA (1985) Assesing soil loss in Kiambu and Murang’a Districts Kenya. Geogr Ann 67(3/4):273–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Litchfield J, Rolla P, Jena F, Dzingirai U, Nyikahadzoi K, Mutopo P (2018) Migrant remittances and gender in Zimbabwe. Migrating Out of Poverty Working Paper. Migrating Out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium, University of SussexGoogle Scholar
  91. Lohnert B (2002) Vom Hüttendorf zur Eigenheimsiedlung: Selbsthilfe im städtischen Wohnungsbau: Ist Kapstadt das Modell für das neue Südafrika?. Universitätsverlag Rasch, OsnabrückGoogle Scholar
  92. Lopez-Ekra S, Aghazarm C, Kötter H, Mollard B (2011) The impact of remittances on gender roles and opportunities for children in recipient families: research from the international organization for migration. Gender Dev 19(1)Google Scholar
  93. Ludwar-Ene G (1986) Explanatory and remedial modalities for personal misfortune in a West African society. Antropos 81:555–565Google Scholar
  94. Lurie M, Harrison A, Wilkinson D, Abdool Karim S (1997) Circular migration and sexual networking in rural KwaZulu/Natal: implications for the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases. Health Trans Rev 7(3):17–27Google Scholar
  95. Mabey DCW, Tedder RS, Hughes ASB, Corrah PT, Goodison SJF, O´Connor T, Shenton FC, Lucas SB, Whittle HC, Greenwood BM (1988) Human retroviral infections in the Gambia prevalence and clinical features. Br Med J 296(6615):83–86Google Scholar
  96. McKay A, Deshingkar P (2014) Internal remittances and poverty: further evidence from Africa and Asia. Working Paper 12: Migrating out of Poverty, University of SussexGoogle Scholar
  97. McLeman R, Smit B (2006) Migration as an adaptation to climate change. Clim Change 76:31–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium (2016a): Migration into cities in Ghana: the economic benefits to migrants and their households. Available via migratingoutofpoverty. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  99. Migrating out of Poverty Research Programme Consortium (2016b): Social benefits and losses of migrating into cities in Ghana. Available via migratingoutofpoverty. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  100. Mims C (2013) 31% of Kenya’s GDP is spent through mobile phones. Available via Quartz. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  101. Misiko M (2007) Fertile ground? Soil fertility management and the African smallholder. PhD-thesis, Wageningen UniversityGoogle Scholar
  102. Morrissey J (2011) Rethinking the ‘debate on environmental refugees’ from ‘maximilists and minimalists’ to ‘proponents and critics’. J Polit Ecol 19:36–49Google Scholar
  103. Mortimore M, Tiffen M (2004) Introducing research into policy: lessons from district studies of dryland development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Dev Policy Rev 22(5):259–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Mothobi O, Grzybowski L (2017) Infrastructure deficiencies and adoption of mobile money in Sub-Saharan Africa. Inf Econ Policy (40):71–79Google Scholar
  105. MPI (Migration Policy Institute) (2012) The global remittances guide. Available via MPI Data Hub. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  106. Myers N (2002) Environmental refugees: a growing phenomenon of the 21st century. Philos Trans B R Soc 357(1429):609–613Google Scholar
  107. Niedenführ, H (2018) Kindermigration in Burkina Faso: Die Praxis der “Anvertrauung” (confiage). Available via Bundeszentrale für politische Bildung. Accessed 17 Apr 2019
  108. Nunn AJ, Wagner H-U, Kamali A, Kengeya-Kayondo JF, Mulder DW (1995) Migration and HIV-1 seroprevalence in a rural Ugandan population. AIDS 9(5):503–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Nyangena W (2006) Essays on soil conservation, social capital and technology adoption. Available via Göteborg University. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  110. O’Keefe P (1983) The causes, consequences and remedies of soil erosion in Kenya. Ambio 12(6):302–305Google Scholar
  111. Obokata R, Veronis L, McLeman R (2014) Empirical research on international environmental migration: a systematic review. Popul Environ 36:111–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development) (2009) International migration outlook SOPEMI Report 2009. Available via OECD. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  113. OECD (Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development) (2010) development aid reaches an historic high in 2010. Available via OECD. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  114. Offiong DA (1982) The 1978–79 AkpanEkwong anti-witchcraft crusade in Nigeria. Anthropologica 24(1):27–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Oliver-Smith A (2012) Debating environmental migration: society, nature and population displacement in climate change. J Int Dev 24:1058–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Olson JM, Atieno F, Muchugu E (2004) Multi-scale analysis of land use and management change on the eastern slopes of Mt. Kenya. LUCID Project Working Paper 20, Michigan State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  117. Oltmer J (2015) Zusammenhänge zwischen Migration und Entwicklung. Available via Deutsche Welthungerhilfe e. V. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  118. Ouédraogo J-B (1995) The girls of Nyovuruu Dagara female labour migrations to Bobo-Dioulasso. In: Baker J, Akin Aida T (eds) The migration experience in Africa. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, pp 303–320Google Scholar
  119. OXFAM (2013) Promises, power and poverty—corporate land deals and rural women in Africa. Available via OXFAM. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  120. Peil M, Ekpenyong SK, Oyeneye OY (1988) Going home: migration careers of Southern Nigerians. Int Migrat Rev 22:563–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Peil M, Sada PO (1984) African urban society. Wiley, Chichester, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  122. Pelling M, High C (2005) Understanding adaptation: what can social capital offer assessments of adaptive capacity? Glob Environ Change 15(4):308–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Pickbourn L (2011) Migration remittances and intra-household allocation in Northern Ghana: does gender matter? Doctoral Dissertations, University of Massachusetts Amherst. Available via Scholarworks. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  124. Piguet E (2013) From ‘primitive migration’ to ‘climate refugees’: the curious fate of the natural environment in migration studies. Ann Assoc Am Geogr 103(1):148–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pison G, Guenno BL, Lagarde E, Enel C, Seck C (1993) Seasonal migration: a risk factor for HIV infection in rural senegal. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 6(2):196–200Google Scholar
  126. Pittin R (1984) Migration of women in Nigeria: the hausa case. Int Migrat Rev 18(4):1293–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Pott A, Felgentreff C (2016) Climatic turn in migration studies? Geographical perspectives on the relationship between climate and migration. Erde 147(2):73–80Google Scholar
  128. Pribilsky J (2004) ‘Aprendemos a Convivir’: conjugal relations, co-parenting and family life among ecuadorian transnational migrants in New York City and the Ecuadorian Andes. Glob Netw 4(3):313–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Quisumbing A (2003) Household decisions, gender and development. A synthesis of recent research. John Hopkins University Press for International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  130. Rain D (1999) Eaters of the dry season: circular labor migration in the West African Sahel. Westview Press, BoulderGoogle Scholar
  131. Ramisch J (2014) ‘We will not farm like our fathers did’ multilocational livelihoods cellphones and the continuing challenge of rural development in Western Kenya. In: Sick D (ed) Rural livelihoods regional economies and processes of change. Routledge, London, pp 10–25Google Scholar
  132. Ramisch J (2015) ‘Never at Ease’: cellphones multilocational livelihoods and the metabolic rift in Western Kenya. Agric Hum Values 33(4):979–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Ratha D, Mohapatra S, Özden C, Plaza S, Shaw W, Shimeles A (2011) Leveraging migration for Africa: remittances skills and investments. Available via World Bank Group. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  134. Ratha D, Riedberg J (2005) On Reducing Remittance Costs. Available via World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  135. Reardon T (1997) Using evidence of household income diversification to inform study of the non-farm labour market in Africa. World Dev 25(5):735–748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Rocheleau DE (2001) Complex communities and relational webs uncertainty, surprise and transformation in Machakos. IDS Bull 32(4):78–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Rocheleau DE, Steinberg PE (1995) Environment development crisis and crusade: Ukambani Kenya, 1890–1990. World Dev 23(6):1037–1051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Rodima-Taylor D, Olwig MF, Chhetri N (2012) Adaptation as innovation, innovation as adaptation: an institutional approach to climate change. Appl Geogr 33:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sakdapolrak P, Naruchaikusol S, Ober K, Peth S, Porst L, Rockenbach T, Tolo V (2016) Migration in a changing climate. Towards a translocal social resilience approach. Die Erde 147(2):81–94Google Scholar
  140. Sander C, Munzele Maimbo S (2005) Migrant labour remittances in Africa: reducing obstacles to developmental contributions Africa region. Working Paper Series 64. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  141. Schade J (2013) Entitlements capabilities and human rights. In: Faist T, Schade J (eds) Disentangling migration and climate change: toward an analysis of methodologies. Political discourses and human rights. Springer, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/New York/London, pp 201, 231–253Google Scholar
  142. Schäfer R (2002) Gender und ländliche Entwicklung in Afrika. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte B 13–14:31–38Google Scholar
  143. Scharwatt C, Williamson C (2015) Mobile money crosses borders: new remittance models in West Africa. Available via GSMA. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  144. Scheffran J, Marmer E, Sow P (2011) Migration as a contribution to resilience and innovation in climate adaptation: social networks and co-development in Northwest Africa. Appl Geogr 1–9Google Scholar
  145. Schmidt-Kallert E, Kreibich V (n d) Informelle Stadt-Land-Beziehungen. Universität DortmundGoogle Scholar
  146. Schutten M (2012) Rwanda livelihood diversity: causes of rural-urban migration; Why Rwanda poverty classification does not explain migration flows. Master Dissertation, University of Utrecht and National University of RwandaGoogle Scholar
  147. Seibert J (1995) Lebensstrategien unabhängiger junger Frauen in Lomé, Togo. Dissertation Thesis, Universität BayreuthGoogle Scholar
  148. Shisanya CA, Khayesi M (2007) How is climate change perceived in relation to other socioeconomic and environmental threats in Nairobi, Kenya. Climate Change 85(3):271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Singlemann J (1993) Levels and trends of female internal migration in developing countries, 1960–80. UN, Internal Migration of Women in Developing Countries, pp 77–93Google Scholar
  150. Smit A (2012) Impacts of rural-urban migration on rural migrant households in the surroundings of Kigali. Master Thesis, University of UtrechtGoogle Scholar
  151. SOFA Team and Doss C (2011) The role of women in agriculture. ESA Working Paper No. 11-02. Agricultural Development Economics Division: The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Available via Accessed 16 Apr 2019
  152. Steel G, Cottyn I, van Lindert P (2017) New connections—new dependencies: spatial and digital flows in Sub-Saharan African livelihoods. In: De Haan L (ed) Livelihoods and development: new perspectives. Brill, Leiden, pp 148–167Google Scholar
  153. Steinbrink M (2007) Exploring the role of migrants’ networks in the context of translocal livelihoods in South Africa. In: Lohnert B (ed) Social networks: potential and constraints. Indications from South Africa. Verlag für Entwicklungspolitik, Saarbrücken, pp 73–113Google Scholar
  154. Steinbrink M (2009) Leben zwischen Land und Stadt, Migration, Translokalität und Verwundbarkeit in Südafrika. Springer, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  155. Sterly H (2015) ‘Without a mobile phone i suppose i had to go there’—Mobile communication and translocal social constellations in Bangladesh. ASIEN 134(1):31–46Google Scholar
  156. Sward J (2016) Moving to ‘Greener Pastures’? The complex relationship between internal migration, land tenure and poverty in mid-Ghana. RPC Working Paper No. 33. Migrating out of Poverty Consortium, University of Sussex, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  157. Tacoli C (2004) Rural-urban linkages and pro-poor agricultural growth: an overview. Paper prepared for the OECD DAC POVNET Helsinki workshop 17–18 June 2004Google Scholar
  158. Tacoli C (2009) Crisis or adaptation? Migration and climate change in a context of high mobility. International Institute for Environmental and Development Studies (IIED). Environment & Urbanization 21(2):513–525Google Scholar
  159. Tacoli C (2011) Not only climate change: mobility, vulnerability and socio–economic transformations in environmentally fragile areas of Bolivia, Senegal, and Tanzania. Human Settlements Working Paper Series—Rural–Urban Interactions and Livelihood Strategies (28)Google Scholar
  160. Tanser F, Bärnighausen T, Grapsa E, Zaidi J, Newell M-L (2013) High coverage of ART associated with decline in risk of HIV acquisition in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Science 339(6122):966–971CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Tanser F, Gijsbertsen B, Herbst K (2006) Modelling and understanding primary health care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: an exploration using a geographical information system. Soc Sci Med 63(3):691–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Tiffen M, Mortimore M, Gichuki F (1994) More people, less erosion: environmental recovery in Kenya. Wiley, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  163. Tompkins EL, Adger WN (2004) Does adaptive management of natural resources enhance resilience to climate change? Ecol Soc 9(2):10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Trager L (1995) Women migrants and rural-urban linkages in South-Western Nigeria. In: Baker J, Akin Aida T (eds) The migration experience in Africa. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, Uppsala, pp 303–320Google Scholar
  165. UN (2018) Economic development in Africa Report. Migration for structural transformation. New York, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  166. UNESCO (2012) Youth and skills: putting education to work. Available via UNESDOC. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  167. van der Land V, Hummel D (2013) Vulnerability and the role of education in environmentally induced migration in Mali and Senegal. Ecol Soc 18(4):14Google Scholar
  168. Vargas-Lundius R, Lanly G, Villarreal M, Osorio M (2008) International migration, remittances and rural development. Available via FAO. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  169. Verspoor AM (2008) The challenge of learning: improving the quality of basic education in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Johnson D (ed) The changing landscape of education in Africa: quality, equality and democracy. Symposium Books, Oxford, pp 13–43Google Scholar
  170. Vorlaufer K (1985) Frauen-migration und Sozialer Wandel in Afrika. Das Beispiel Kenya. Erdkunde 39(2):128–143Google Scholar
  171. Waddington H, Sabates-Wheeler R (2003) How does poverty affect migration choice? A review of literature. In: IDS Working Paper T3. BrightonGoogle Scholar
  172. Warner K, Afifi T (2014) Where the rain falls: evidence from 8 countries on how vulnerable households use migration to manage the risk of rainfall variability and food insecurity. Clim Dev 6(1):1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Warner K, Hamza M, Oliver-Smith A, Renaud F, Julca A (2010) Climate change, environmental degradation and migration. Nat Hazards 55(3):689–715CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Watkins K, Quattri M (2014) Lost in intermediation: how excessive charges undermine the benefits of remittances for Africa. Available via ODI, Overseas Development Institute. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  175. Werthmann K (2007) Dans un monde masculin le travail de femmes dans un camp de chercheurs d’or au Burkina Faso. In: Boesen E, Marfaing L (eds) Les nouveaux urbains dans l’espace Sahara-Sahel. Karthala, Paris, pp 295–322Google Scholar
  176. Wong M (2006) The gendered politics of remittances in Ghanaian transnational families. Econ Geogr 2(4):335–381Google Scholar
  177. World Bank (2003) Global development finance 2003: striving for stability in development finance. 1: Analysis and statistical appendix. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  178. World Bank (2009) Remittances and natural disasters: ex-post response and contribution to ex-ante preparedness. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  179. World Bank (2012) World Bank migration and remittances data. bilateral remittances matrix 2012, World Bank, World Development Indicators. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  180. World Bank (2013) Migration and development brief (Nr. 21) Migration and remittances team development prospects. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  181. World Bank (2014) World Development Indicators 2014. Available via The World Bank. Accessed 22 Mar 2019
  182. World Bank (2018) Migration and remittances. Recent developments and outlook. Special topic: transit migration. Available via World Bank Group. Accessed 18 Mar 2019
  183. Wurster G (1995) Beruf und Karriere im Leben gebildeter Frauen in Nairobi, Kenia. Dissertation Thesis, Universität BayreuthGoogle Scholar
  184. Yaro JA, Awumbila M, Teye JK (2015) The life struggles and successes of the migrant construction worker in Accra, Ghana. Ghana J Geogr 7(2):113–131Google Scholar
  185. Youngstedt SM (2013) Voluntary involuntary homebodies adaptations and lived experiences of Hausa ‘left behind’ in Niamey, Niger. In: Kane A, Leedy TH (eds) African migrations patterns and perspectives. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indianapolis, pp 133–157Google Scholar
  186. Ziegelmayer U, Spaan E (2019) Migrant trajectories within the context of demographic, socio-economic and environmental change: evidence from coastal Ghana. In: Hillmann F, Van Naerssen T, Spaan E (eds) Trajectories and imaginaries in migration: the migrant actor in transnational space. Routledge, London, New York, pp 34–55Google Scholar
  187. Zourkaleini Y, Mimche H, Nganawara D et al (2013) L’Impact des migrations Sud-Sud sur le développement au Cameroun (The impact of South–South Migration on Development in Cameroon). ACPGoogle Scholar
  188. Zuma K, Gouws E, Williams B, Lurie M (2003) Risk factors for HIV infection among women in Carletonville, South Africa: migration, demography and sexually transmitted diseases. Int J STD AIDS 14(12):814–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.GeographyUniversity of PassauPassauGermany
  2. 2.Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural StudiesUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany

Personalised recommendations