Agents of Change – Management and Succession

  • Tim R. New


This chapter introduces the variety of management needs and approaches for conserving grasslands and their insect faunas, and how these needs may be brought into practice. A premise for those needs is the dictum noted in the introduction to ‘Grasslands of the world’ (Suttie et al. 2005). Their comment that ‘No grassland is entirely natural’ deserves serious reflection. Changes and losses from a great variety of human interventions, including moves to improve grasslands for human use, pose a multitude of concerns and problems for conserving even the best-known biodiversity that can represent those areas. Suttie et al. also noted that ‘all discussion of grassland must be in the context of animal production’ and accompanying human livelihoods. Clearly, conservation of the many little-known and poorly documented grassland invertebrates – even of the more popular groups – gains little practical sympathy in comparison. Yen (1999), discussing invertebrates of Victorian grasslands, suggested that invertebrates only gain importance in public or political circles when they become economically important (such as herbivores gaining pest status) or are regarded as essential for survival of significant endangered vertebrates (as food).


Butterflies Grassland loss Insect assemblages Orthoptera Spillover effects Succession Vulnerability 


  1. Balmer O, Erhardt A (2000) Consequences of succession on extensively grazed grasslands for central European butterfly communities: rethinking conservation practices. Conserv Biol 14:746–757CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bieringer G, Zulka KP (2003) Shading out species richness: edge effect of a pine plantation on the Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae and Acrididae) assemblage of an adjacent dry grassland. Biodivers Conserv 12:1481–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Blitzer EJ, Dormann CF, Holzschuh A, Klein A-M, Rand TA, Tscharntke T (2012) Spillover of functionally important organisms between managed and natural habitats. Agric Ecosyst Environ 146:34–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonari G, Fajmon K, Malenovsky I, Zeleny D, Holusa J et al (2017) Management of semi-natural grasslands benefiting both plant and insect diversity: the importance of heterogeneity and tradition. Agric Ecosyst Environ 246:243–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Butler JL, Ott JP, Hartway CR, Dickerson BE (2018) Biological assessment of oil and gas development on the Little Missouri National Grassland. Gen tech report RMRS-GTR-384. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Fort Collins, COGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiste MN, Mody K, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Kohler G, Weisser WW, Bluthgen N (2016) Losers, winners, and opportunists: how grassland land-use intensity affects orthopteran communities. Ecosphere 7(11):e01545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cremene C, Groza G, Rakosy L, Schileyko AA, Bauer A, Erhardt A, Baur B (2005) Alterations of steppe-like grasslands in eastern Europe: a threat to regional biodiversity hotspots. Conserv Biol 19:1606–1618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DNRE (Department of Natural Resources and Environment) (2001) Partnerships in grassland conservation. Department of Natural Resources and Environment, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  9. Dorrough J, Yen A, Turner V, Clark SG, Crosthwaite J, Hirth JR (2004) Livestock grazing management and biodiversity conservation in Australian temperate grassy landscapes. Aust J Agric Res 55:279–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ernst LM, Tscharntke T, Batary P (2017) Grassland management in agricultural vs. forested landscapes drives butterfly and bird diversity. Biol Conserv 216:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Forster G, Hallam M, Moore RM (1975) Vegetation in an urban environment – the western suburbs of Melbourne. CSIRO Division of Land Use Research, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  12. Hanggi A, Bauer B (1998) The effect of forest edge on ground-living arthropods in a remnant of unfertilized calcareous grassland in the Swiss Jura mountains. Mitt Schweitz Entomol Gess 71:343–354Google Scholar
  13. Lockwood JA, Howarth FG, Purcell MF (2001) Balancing nature: assessing the impacts of importing non-native biological control agents (an international perspective). Entomological Society of America, LanhamGoogle Scholar
  14. Loffler F, Stuhldreher G, Fartmann T (2013) How much care does a shrub-feeding hairstreak butterfly, Satyrium spini (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae), need in calcareous grasslands? Eur J Entomol 110:145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Madeira F, Tscharntke T, Elek Z, Kormann UG, Pons X et al (2016) Spillover of arthropods from cropland to protected calcareous grassland – the neighbouring habitat matters. Agric Ecosyst Environ 235:127–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Northrup JM, Wittemyer G (2013) Characterising the impacts of emerging energy development on wildlife, with an eye towards mitigation. Ecol Lett 16:112–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Pieper RD (2005) Grasslands of central North America. In: Suttie JM, Reynolds SG, Batella C (eds) Grasslands of the world. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp 221–263Google Scholar
  18. Rand TA, Louda SM (2006) Spillover of agriculturally subsidized predators as a potential threat to native insect herbivores in fragmented landscapes. Conserv Biol 20:1720–1729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rand TA, Tylianakis JM, Tscharntke T (2006) Spillover edge effects: the dispersal of agriculturally subsidized insect natural enemies into adjacent natural habitats. Ecol Lett 9:603–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schneider G, Krauss J, Boetzl FA, Fritze M-A, Steffan-Dewenter I (2016) Spillover from adjacent crop and forest habitats shapes carabid beetle assemblages in fragmented semi-natural grasslands. Oecologia 182:1141–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Steffan-Dewenter I, Bommarco R, Holzschuh A, Ockinger E, Potts SG et al (2014) The interface between conservation areas and agriculture: functional spillover and ecosystem services. In: Henle K, Potts S, Kunin S, Matsino Y, Simila J et al (eds) Scaling in ecology and biodiversity conservation. Pensoft, Sofia, pp 83–90Google Scholar
  22. Suttie JM, Reynolds SG, Batella C (eds) (2005) Grasslands of the world. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
  23. Tolgyesi C, Csaszar P, Torma A, Torok P, Batori Z, Galle R (2018) Think twice before using narrow buffers: attenuating mowing-induced arthropod spillover at forest-grassland edges. Agric Ecosyst Environ 255:37–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Williams NSG, McDonnell MJ, Seager EJ (2005) Factors influencing the loss of an endangered ecosystem in an urbanising landscape; a case study of native grasslands from Melbourne, Australia. Landsc Urb Plann 71:35–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Yen AL (1999) Grassland invertebrates of the Western Victorian basalt plains: plant crunchers of forgotten lunches? In: Jones R (ed) The great plains crash. Proceedings of a conference on the grasslands and grassy woodlands of Victoria. Indigenous Flora and Fauna Association and Victorian National Parks Association, Melbourne, pp 57–68Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tim R. New
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Ecology, Environment & EvolutionLa Trobe UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations