Advertisement

Symptom Assessment and Management Across the Cancer Trajectory

  • Melody Brown-HellstenEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

Children undergoing cancer treatment experience substantial symptom burden related to the disease, treatment, and alterations in family life. Not surprisingly, children receiving cancer-directed therapy as well as survivors of childhood cancers have reported poorer psychological, social, and physical health-related quality of life as compared to siblings, same-age peers, and children with other chronic conditions. Too often, symptoms are seen by patients, families, and providers as part of the treatment process leading to a complex interaction of underreporting of symptoms by children and parents and under-recognition of the extent of symptom burden by providers. The obligation to relieve pain and suffering related to disease is inherent in both medical and nursing codes of ethics related to principles of beneficence, patient autonomy, and veracity. It is incumbent on health-care providers to attend to the known symptom burden of children and their family members by engaging in open and honest conversations aimed at establishing the expectation that symptoms will be managed to the best of their ability to maximize quality of life and minimize unnecessary suffering.

Keywords

Symptom assessment Cancer Pain management Pediatrics Adolescents Children Oncology End life care 

References

  1. 1.
    Miller E, Jacob E, Hockenberry MJ. Nausea, pain, fatigue, and multiple symptoms in hospitalized children with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2011;38(5):E382–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kjaer TK, Johansen C, Ibfelt E, et al. Impact of symptom burden on health related quality of life of cancer survivors in a Danish cancer rehabilitation program: a longitudinal study. Acta Oncol. 2011;50(2):223–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rosenberg AR, Orellana L, Ullrich C, et al. Quality of life in children with advanced cancer: a report from the PediQUEST study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2016;52(2):243–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Eiser C, Stride CB, Vora A, et al. Prospective evaluation of quality of life in children treated in UKALL 2003 for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a cohort study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(11):e26615.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kaye EC, Brinkman TM, Baker JN. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework. Support Care Cancer. 2017;25(6):2009–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Woodgate RL, Degner LF. Expectations and beliefs about children’s cancer symptoms: perspectives of children with cancer and their families. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2003;30(3):479–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Docherty SL. Symptom experiences of children and adolescents with cancer. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2003;21:123–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Greiner AM, Kaldjian LC. Rethinking medical oaths using the Physician Charter and ethical virtues. Med Educ. 2018;52(8):826–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Project of the ABIM Foundation AAF, Medicine∗ EFoI. Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(3):243–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Winland-Brown J, Lachman VD, Swanson EO. The new ‘code of ethics for nurses with interpretive statements’ (2015): practical clinical application, Part I. Medsurg Nurs. 2015;24(4):268–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Epstein BT, Turner M. The nursing code of ethics: its value, its history. Online J Issues Nurs. 2015;20(2):33–41.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Baggott CR, Dodd M, Kennedy C, et al. An evaluation of the factors that affect the health-related quality of life of children following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19(3):353–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hockenberry MJ, Taylor OA, Pasvogel A, et al. The influence of oxidative stress on symptom occurrence, severity and distress during childhood leukemia treatment. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2014;41(4):E238–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Williams PD. A symptom checklist for children with cancer: the therapy-related symptom checklist – children. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(2):89–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dupuis LL, Johnston DL, Baggott C, et al. Validation of the symptom screening in pediatrics tool in children receiving cancer treatments. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017;110(6):661–8.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baggott C, Cooper BA, Marina N, Matthay KK, Miaskowski C. Symptom cluster analyses based on symptom occurrence and severity ratings among pediatric oncology patients during Myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(1):19–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Woodgate RL, Degner LF, Yanofsky R. A different perspective to approaching cancer symptoms in children. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2003;26(3):800–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ferrell BR, Rhiner M, Shapiro B, Strause L. The family experience of cancer pain management in children. Cancer Pract. 1994;2(6):441–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hockenberry MJ, Hooke MC, Rodgers C, et al. Symptom trajectories in children receiving treatment for leukemia: a latent class growth analysis with multitrajectory modeling. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2017;54(1):1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Good BJ, Good MD. The meaning of symptoms: a cultural hermeneutic model for clinical practice. In: The relevance of social science for medicine. Culture, illness, and healing (studies in comparative cross-cultural research). Dordrecht: Springer; 1981. p. 165–96.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lenz ER, Pugh LC, Milligan RA, Gift A, Suppe F. The middle-range theory of unpleasant symptoms: an update. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1997;19(3):14–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tishelman C, Taube A, Sachs L. Self-reported symptom distress in cancer patients: reflections of disease, illness or sickness? Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(11):1229–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dodd M, Janson S, Facione N, et al. Advancing the science of symptom management. J Adv Nurs. 2001;33(5):668–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Armstrong TS. Symptoms experience: a concept analysis. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2003;30(4):601–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Rhodes VA, Watson PM. Symptom distress—the concept: past and present. Semin Oncol Nurs. 1987;3(4):242–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hinds PS, Quargnenti AG, Wentz TJ. Measuring symptom distress in adolescents with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 1992;9(2):84–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Woodgate RL. Feeling states: a new approach to understanding how children and adolescents with cancer experience symptoms. Cancer Nurs. 2008;31(3):229–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dodd MJ, Miaskowski C, Lee KA. Occurrence of symptom clusters. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr. 2004;32:76–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Woodgate RL. Life is never the same: childhood cancer narratives. Eur J Cancer Care. 2006;15(1):8–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Feinstein J, Dai D, Zhong W, Freedman J, Feudtner C. Potential drug−drug interactions in infant, child, and adolescent patients in children’s hospitals. Pediatrics. 2015;135(1):e99–e108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Dai D, Feinstein JA, Morrison W, Zuppa AF, Feudtner C. Epidemiology of polypharmacy and potential drug–drug interactions among pediatric patients in ICUs of U.S. Children’s Hospitals∗. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2016;17(5):e218–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cassell EJ. The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. New York: Oxford University Press; 1991.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Carnevale FA. A conceptual and moral analysis of suffering. Nurs Ethics. 2009;16(2):173–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Wolfe J, Grier HE, Klar N, et al. Symptoms and suffering at the end of life in children with cancer. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(5):326–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wolfe J, Hammel JF, Edwards KE, et al. Easing of suffering in children with cancer at the end of life: is care changing? J Clin Oncol. 2008;26(10):1717–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ferrell BR, Rhiner M, Shapiro B, Dierkes M. The experience of pediatric cancer pain, Part I: impact of pain on the family. J Pediatr Nurs. 1994;9(6):368–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kane JR, Primomo M. Alleviating the suffering of seriously ill children. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2001;18(3):161–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Mu P-F, Lee M-Y, Sheng C-C, Tung P-C, Huang L-Y, Chen Y-W. The experiences of family members in the year following the diagnosis of a child or adolescent with cancer: a qualitative systematic review. JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep. 2015;13(5):293–329.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Hovén E. Impact of a child’s cancer disease on parents’ everyday life: a longitudinal study from Sweden. Acta Oncol. 2017;56(1):93–100.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wilson JZ, Marin D, Maxwell K, et al. Association of posttraumatic growth and Illness-related burden with psychosocial factors of patient, family, and provider in pediatric cancer survivors. J Trauma Stress. 2016;29(5):448–56.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sultan S, Leclair T, Rondeau É, Burns W, Abate C. A systematic review on factors and consequences of parental distress as related to childhood cancer. Eur J Cancer Care. 2016;25(4):616–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Tillery R, Howard Sharp KM, Okado Y, Long A, Phipps S. Profiles of resilience and growth in youth with cancer and healthy comparisons. J Pediatr Psychol. 2016;41(3):290–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Van Schoors M, Caes L, Verhofstadt LL, Goubert L, Alderfer MA. Systematic review: family resilience after pediatric cancer diagnosis. J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(9):856–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rosenberg AR, Dussel V, Kang T, et al. Psychological distress in parents of children with advanced cancer. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167(6):537–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tedeschi RG, Calhoun LG. Beyond the concept of recovery: growth and the experience of loss. Death Stud. 2008;32(1):27–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Howard Sharp KM, Willard VW, Okado Y, et al. Profiles of connectedness: processes of resilience and growth in children with cancer. J Pediatr Psychol. 2015;40(9):904–13.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Coburn SS, Eakin MN, Roter D, et al. Patient-provider communication in nephrology care for adolescents and young adults. Patient Educ Couns. 2017;100(9):1680–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    van Dulmen AM. Children’s contributions to pediatric outpatient encounters. Pediatrics. 1998;102(3):563–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Stivers T. Physician–child interaction: when children answer physicians’ questions in routine medical encounters. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;87(1):3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Vigilante VA, Hossain J, Wysocki T, Sharif I. Correlates of type and quantity of child communication during pediatric subspecialty encounters. Patient Educ Couns. 2015;98(11):1352–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Patient-Reported Outcome Measures: Use in medical product development to support labeling claims. Silver Spring Department of Health and Human Services 2009.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
  53. 53.
    Kirch R, Reaman G, Feudtner C, et al. Advancing a comprehensive cancer care agenda for children and their families: Institute of Medicine Workshop highlights and next steps. CA Cancer J Clin. 2016;66(5):398–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Basch E, Deal AM, Dueck AC, et al. Overall survival results of a trial assessing patient-reported outcomes for symptom monitoring during routine cancer treatment overall survival for patient-reported symptom monitoring in routine cancer treatment letters. JAMA. 2017;318(2):197–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Leahy AB, Feudtner C, Basch E. Symptom monitoring in pediatric oncology using patient-reported outcomes: why, how, and where next. Patient. 2018;11(2):147–53.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Lai J-S, Yount S, Beaumont JL, Cella D, Toia J, Goldman S. A patient-centered symptom monitoring and reporting system for children and young adults with cancer (SyMon-SAYS). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(10):1813–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wolfe J. Improving the care of children with advanced cancer by using an electronic patient-reported feedback intervention: results from the PediQUEST randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(11):1119–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pinheiro LC, et al. Child and adolescent self-report symptom measurement in pediatric oncology research: a systematic literature review. Qual Life Res. 2018;27(2):291–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schepers Sasja A, Haverman L, Zadeh S, Grootenhuis Martha A, Wiener L. Healthcare professionals’ preferences and perceived barriers for routine assessment of patient-reported outcomes in pediatric oncology practice: moving toward international processes of change. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(12):2181–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Wolfe J, Orellana L, Cook EF, et al. Improving the care of children with advanced cancer by using an electronic patient-reported feedback intervention: results from the PediQUEST randomized controlled trial. J Clin Oncol. 2014;32(11):1119–26.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hinds PS. Aggressive treatment of non-metastatic osteosarcoma improves health-related quality of life in children and adolescents. Eur J Cancer (1990). 2009;45(11):2007–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hinds PS, Schum L, Srivastava DK. Is clinical relevance sometimes lost in summative scores? West J Nurs Res. 2002;24(4):345–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hinds PS. An evaluation of the impact of a self-care coping intervention on psychological and clinical outcomes in adolescents with newly diagnosed cancer. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2000;4(1):6–17; discussion 18–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Collins JJ, Devine TD, Dick GS, et al. The measurement of symptoms in Young children with cancer: the validation of the memorial symptom assessment scale in children aged 7–12. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2002;23(1):10–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Collins JJ, Byrnes ME, Dunkel IJ, et al. The measurement of symptoms in children with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2000;19(5):363–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tseng TH. Assessing cancer symptoms in adolescents with cancer using the Taiwanese version of the M. D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Cancer Nurs. 2008;31(3):E9–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Yeh CH. Assessment of symptoms reported by 10- to 18-year-old cancer patients in Taiwan. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2009;38(5):738–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Yeh CH. Symptom clustering in older Taiwanese children with cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2008;35(2):273–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Baggott C. Symptom cluster analyses based on symptom occurrence and severity ratings among pediatric oncology patients during myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(1):19–28.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Baggott C. An evaluation of the factors that affect the health-related quality of life of children following myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19(3):353–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Baggott C. Changes in children’s reports of symptom occurrence and severity during a course of myelosuppressive chemotherapy. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2010;27(6):307–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Walker AJ. Differences in symptom occurrence, frequency, intensity, and distress in adolescents prior to and one week after the administration of chemotherapy. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2010;27(5):259–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Atay S. Identifying symptom clusters in paediatric cancer patients using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Eur J Cancer Care. 2012;21(4):460–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Arslan FT. Quality of life and chemotherapy-related symptoms of Turkish cancer children undergoing chemotherapy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2013;14(3):1761–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Abu-Saad Huijer H, Sagherian K, Tamim H. Quality of life and symptom prevalence as reported by children with cancer in Lebanon. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2013;17(6):704–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Wolfe J, Orellana L, Ullrich C, et al. Symptoms and distress in children with advanced cancer: prospective patient-reported outcomes from the PediQUEST study. J Clin Oncol. 2015;33(17):1928–35.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Friedrichsdorf SJ, Postier A. Management of breakthrough pain in children with cancer. J Pain Res. 2014;7:117–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Van Cleve L, Muñoz CE, Riggs ML, Bava L, Savedra M. Pain experience in children with advanced cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2012;29(1):28–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Jacob E. Intensity, location, and quality of pain in Spanish-speaking children with cancer. Pediatr Nurs. 2008;34(1):45–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Twycross A, Parker R, Williams A, Gibson F. Cancer-related pain and pain management: sources, prevalence, and the experiences of children and parents. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2015;32(6):369–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Olson K, Amari A. Self-reported pain in adolescents with leukemia or a brain tumor: a systematic review. Cancer Nurs. 2015;38(5):E43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Tutelman PR, Chambers CT, Stinson JN, et al. Pain in children with cancer: prevalence, characteristics, and parent management. Clin J Pain. 2018;34(3):198–206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Jibb LA, Nathan PC, Stevens BJ, Seto E, Cafazzo JA, Stephens N, Yohannes L, Stinson JN. Psychological and physical interventions for the management of cancer-related pain in pediatric and young adult patients: an integrative review. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2015;42(6):E339–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Anghelescu DL, Faughnan LG, Popenhagen MP, Oakes LL, Pei D, Burgoyne LL. Neuropathic pain referrals to a multidisciplinary pediatric cancer pain service. Pain Manag Nurs. 2014;15(1):126–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pritchard M, Burghen EA, Gattuso JS, et al. Factors that distinguish symptoms of most concern to parents from other symptoms of dying children. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;39(4):627–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Pritchard M, Burghen E, Srivastava DK, et al. Cancer-related symptoms most concerning to parents during the last week and last day of their child's life. Pediatrics. 2008;121(5):e1301–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Plummer K, McCarthy M, McKenzie I, Newall F, Manias E. Pain assessment and management in paediatric oncology: a cross-sectional audit. J Clin Nurs. 2017;26(19–20):2995–3006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Smitherman AB, Mohabir D, Wilkins TM, Blatt J, Nichols HB, Dusetzina SB. Early post-therapy prescription drug usage among childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. J Pediatr. 2018;195:161–168.e167.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Drake R. The symptoms of dying children. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2003;26(1):594–603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Baggott. Multiple symptoms in pediatric oncology patients: a systematic review. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2009;26(6):325–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Williams PD, Robinson J, Williams AR. Symptom occurrence and severity on the therapy-related symptom checklist for children among Hispanic pediatric oncology outpatients. Cancer Nurs. 2014;37(3):E12–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dupuis LL. Symptom assessment in children receiving cancer therapy: the parents’ perspective. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18(3):281–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Pöder U, Ljungman G, von Essen L. Parents’ perceptions of their children’s cancer-related symptoms during treatment: a prospective, longitudinal study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;40(5):661–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Williams PD. Symptom monitoring and dependent care during cancer treatment in children: pilot study. Cancer Nurs. 2006;29(3):188–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hinds PS, Nuss SL, Ruccione KS, et al. PROMIS pediatric measures in pediatric oncology: valid and clinically feasible indicators of patient-reported outcomes. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(3):402–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hockenberry MJ, Hooke MC, Gregurich M, McCarthy K, Sambuco G, Krull K. Symptom clusters in children and adolescents receiving cisplatin, doxorubicin, or ifosfamide. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2010;37(1):E16–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Linder LA. Measuring physical symptoms in children and adolescents with cancer. Cancer Nurs. 2005;28(1):16–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Hinds PS, Brandon J, Allen C, Hijiya N, Newsome R, Kane JR. Patient-reported outcomes in end-of-life research in pediatric oncology. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(9):1079–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Baggott C, Cooper BA, Marina N, Matthay KK, Miaskowski C. Symptom assessment in pediatric oncology: how should concordance between children’s and parents’ reports be evaluated? Cancer Nurs. 2014;37(4):252–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Zhukovsky DS, Herzog CE, Kaur G, Palmer JL, Bruera E. The impact of palliative care consultation on symptom assessment, communication needs, and palliative interventions in pediatric patients with cancer. J Palliat Med. 2009;12(4):343–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hedén L, Pöder U, von Essen L, Ljungman G. Parents’ perceptions of their child’s symptom burden during and after cancer treatment. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2013;46(3):366–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Van Cleve L, Muñoz CE, Savedra M, et al. Symptoms in children with advanced cancer: child and nurse reports. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(2):115–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Finnegan L, Campbell RT, Ferrans CE, Wilbur J, Wilkie DJ, Shaver J. Symptom cluster experience profiles in adult survivors of childhood cancers. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2009;38(2):258–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Huang I-C, Hudson MM, Robison LL, Krull KR. Differential impact of symptom prevalence and chronic conditions on quality of life in cancer survivors and non-cancer individuals: a population study. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017;26(7):1124–32.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ness KK. Chemotherapy-related neuropathic symptoms and functional impairment in adult survivors of extracranial solid tumors of childhood: results from the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2013;94(8):1451–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Robison LL. Survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: life-long risks and responsibilities. Nat Rev Cancer. 2014;14(1):61–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Graef DM, Phipps S, Parris KR, et al. Sleepiness, fatigue, behavioral functioning, and quality of life in survivors of childhood hematopoietic stem cell transplant. J Pediatr Psychol. 2016;41(6):600–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Kinahan KE, Sharp LK, Seidel K, et al. Scarring, disfigurement, and quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2012;30(20):2466–74.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Macartney GG. Symptom experience and quality of life in pediatric brain tumor survivors: a cross-sectional study. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;48(5):957–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Cheung YT, Brinkman TM, Mulrooney DA, et al. Impact of sleep, fatigue, and systemic inflammation on neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer. 2017;123(17):3410–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Meeske KA. Mental health disparities between Hispanic and non-Hispanic parents of childhood cancer survivors. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(9):1470–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Brinkman TM, Li C, Vannatta K, et al. Behavioral, social, and emotional symptom comorbidities and profiles in adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(28):3417–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kaul S, Avila JC, Mutambudzi M, Russell H, Kirchhoff AC, Schwartz CL. Mental distress and health care use among survivors of adolescent and young adult cancer: a cross-sectional analysis of the National Health Interview Survey. Cancer. 2017;123(5):869–78.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Erickson JM. Symptoms and symptom clusters in adolescents receiving cancer treatment: a review of the literature. Int J Nurs Stud. 2013;50(6):847–69.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rodgers CC. Symptom clusters in children. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2013;7(1):67–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Atay S, Conk Z, Bahar Z. Identifying symptom clusters in paediatric cancer patients using the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. Eur J Cancer Care. 2012;21(4):460–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Hockenberry M, Hooke MC. Symptom clusters in children with cancer. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2007;23(2):152–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hockenberry MJ, Hooke MC, McCarthy K, Gregurich MA. Sickness behavior clustering in children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2011;28(5):263–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Aktas A. Cancer symptom clusters: current concepts and controversies. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2013;7(1):38–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Williams PD, Williams AR, Kelly KP, et al. A symptom checklist for children with cancer: the therapy-related symptom checklist-children. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(2):89–98.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Illi J, Miaskowski C, Cooper B, et al. Association between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and a symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, and depression. Cytokine. 2012;58(3):437–47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Cleeland CS, Bennett GJ, Dantzer R, et al. Are the symptoms of cancer and cancer treatment due to a shared biologic mechanism? Cancer. 2003;97(11):2919–25.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dantzer R. Cytokine, sickness behavior, and depression. Immunol Allergy Clin N Am. 2009;29(2):247–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Reyes-Gibby CC, Wu X, Spitz M, et al. Molecular epidemiology, cancer-related symptoms, and cytokines pathway. Lancet Oncol. 2008;9(8):777–85.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Ellis A, Bennett DLH. Neuroinflammation and the generation of neuropathic pain. Br J Anaesth. 2013;111(1):26–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Ji R-R, Nackley A, Huh Y, Terrando N, Maixner W. Neuroinflammation and central sensitization in chronic and widespread pain. Anesthesiology. 2018;129(2):343–66.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Sommer C, Leinders M, Üçeyler N. Inflammation in the pathophysiology of neuropathic pain. Pain. 2018;159(3):595–602.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Low CA, Kalinski P, Bovbjerg DH. Neurocognitive impairment as one facet of cancer-related sickness behavior symptoms. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2015;107(8):djv176.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Dantzer R, Kelley KW. Twenty years of research on cytokine-induced sickness behavior. Brain Behav Immun. 2007;21(2):153–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bufalino C, Hepgul N, Aguglia E, Pariante CM. The role of immune genes in the association between depression and inflammation: a review of recent clinical studies. Brain Behav Immun. 2013;31:31–47.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ray A. Neuroplasticity, sensitization and pain. In: Treatment of chronic pain by integrative approaches: the American Academy of Pain Medicine textbook on patient management. New York: Springer; 2015. p. 15–24.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lynch Kelly D, Dickinson K, Hsiao C-P, et al. Biological basis for the clustering of symptoms. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2016;32(4):351–60.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Vallance K, Yang J, Li J, Crabtree VM, Hinds PS, Mandrell BN. Disturbed sleep in pediatric patients with leukemia: the potential role of interleukin-6 (-174GC) and tumor necrosis factor (-308GA) polymorphism. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2011;38(5):E365–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hockenberry MJ, Hinds PS, Barrera P, et al. Three instruments to assess fatigue in children with cancer: the child, parent and staff perspectives. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2003;25(4):319–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Walter LM, Nixon GM, Davey MJ, Downie PA, Horne RSC. Sleep and fatigue in pediatric oncology: a review of the literature. Sleep Med Rev. 2015;24:71–82.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Rosen GM, Bendel AE, Neglia JP, Moertel CL, Mahowald M. Sleep in children with neoplasms of the central nervous system: case review of 14 children. Pediatrics. 2003;112(1):e46–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Olson K. Sleep-related disturbances among adolescents with cancer: a systematic review. Sleep Med. 2014;15(5):496–501.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Baumann FT, Bloch W, Beulertz J. Clinical exercise interventions in pediatric oncology: a systematic review. Pediatr Res. 2013;74:366.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Orsey AD, Wakefield DB, Cloutier MM. Physical activity (PA) and sleep among children and adolescents with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2013;60(11):1908–13.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Hooke MC, Gilchrist L, Tanner L, Hart N, Withycombe JS. Use of a fitness tracker to promote physical activity in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(4):684–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Yeh CH, Man Wai JP, Lin U-S, Chiang Y-C. A pilot study to examine the feasibility and effects of a home-based aerobic program on reducing fatigue in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Nurs. 2011;34(1):3–12.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Wallek S, Senn-Malashonak A, Vogt L, Schmidt K, Bader P, Banzer W. Impact of the initial fitness level on the effects of a structured exercise therapy during pediatric stem cell transplantation. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(2):e26851.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ekti Genc R, Conk Z. Impact of effective nursing interventions to the fatigue syndrome in children who receive chemotherapy. Cancer Nurs. 2008;31(4):312–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Papaconstantinou EA, Hodnett E, Stremler R. A behavioral-educational intervention to promote pediatric sleep during hospitalization: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Behav Sleep Med. 2016;16(4):356–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Darezzo Rodrigues Nunes M, Jacob E, Adlard K, Secola R, Nascimento L. Fatigue and sleep experiences at home in children and adolescents with Cancer. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2015;42(5):498–506.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Wong J, Ghiasuddin A, Kimata C, Patelesio B, Siu A. The impact of healing touch on pediatric oncology patients. Integr Cancer Ther. 2012;12(1):25–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Hinds PS, Hockenberry M, Rai SN, et al. Clinical field testing of an enhanced-activity intervention in hospitalized children with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2007;33(6):686–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Post-White J, Fitzgerald M, Savik K, Hooke MC, Hannahan AB, Sencer SF. Massage therapy for children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2008;26(1):16–28.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Hooke MC, Gilchrist L, Foster L, Langevin M, Lee J. Yoga for children and adolescents after completing cancer treatment. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2015;33(1):64–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Olson K. Self-reported pain in adolescents with leukemia or a brain tumor: a systematic review. Cancer Nurs. 2015;38(5):E43–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rosen G, Brand SR. Sleep in children with cancer: case review of 70 children evaluated in a comprehensive pediatric sleep center. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19(7):985–94.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Hedén LL. Randomized interventions for needle procedures in children with cancer. Eur J Cancer Care. 2009;18(4):358–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Rhiner M, Ferrell BR, Shapiro B, Dierkes M. The experience of pediatric cancer pain, Part II: management of pain. J Pediatr Nurs. 1994;9(6):380–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Bukola IM, Paula D. The effectiveness of distraction as procedural pain management technique in pediatric oncology patients: a meta-analysis and systematic review. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2017;54(4):589–600.e581.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Landier W, Tse AM. Use of complementary and alternative medical interventions for the management of procedure-related pain, anxiety, and distress in pediatric oncology: an integrative review. J Pediatr Nurs. 2010;25(6):566–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Jibb LA, Nathan PC, Stevens BJ, et al. Psychological and physical interventions for the management of cancer-related pain in pediatric and Young adult patients: an integrative review. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2015;42(6):E339–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Thrane SE, Maurer SH, Ren D, Danford CA, Cohen SM. Reiki therapy for symptom management in children receiving palliative care: a pilot study. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2016;34(4):373–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Ahmed M, Modak S, Sequeira S. Acute pain relief after Mantram meditation in children with neuroblastoma undergoing anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody therapy. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2014;36(2):152–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Chubak J, Hawkes R, Dudzik C, et al. Pilot study of therapy dog visits for inpatient youth with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2017;34(5):331–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Urbanski BL, Lazenby M. Distress among hospitalized pediatric cancer patients modified by pet-therapy intervention to improve quality of life. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2012;29(5):272–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Alison T, Roslyn P, Anna W, Faith G. Cancer-related pain and pain management: sources, prevalence, and the experiences of children and parents. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2015;32(6):369–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Wiffen PJ, Cooper TE, Anderson A-K, et al. Opioids for cancer-related pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:1–22.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Cooper TE, Heathcote LC, Anderson B, Grégoire M-C, Ljungman G, Eccleston C. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for cancer-related pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;7:CD012563.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mercadante S, Giarratano A. Pharmacological management of cancer pain in children. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2014;91(1):93–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Anghelescu DL, Ehrentraut JH, Faughnan LG. Opioid misuse and abuse: risk assessment and management in patients with cancer pain. J Natl Compr Cancer Netw. 2013;11(8):1023–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Ehrentraut JH, Kern KD, Long SA, An AQ, Faughnan LG, Anghelescu DL. Opioid misuse behaviors in adolescents and young adults in a hematology/oncology setting. J Pediatr Psychol. 2014;39(10):1149–60.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Thienprayoon R, Porter K, Tate M, Ashby M, Meyer M. Risk stratification for opioid misuse in children, adolescents, and young adults: a quality improvement project. Pediatrics. 2017;139(1):e1–e10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Trang T, Al-Hasani R, Salvemini D, Salter MW, Gutstein H, Cahill CM. Pain and poppies: the good, the bad, and the ugly of opioid analgesics. J Neurosci. 2015;35(41):13879–88.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Getz KD, Miller TP, Seif AE, et al. Opioid utilization among pediatric patients treated for newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia. PLoS One. 2018;13(2):1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Walco GA, Gove N, Phillips J, Weisman SJ. Opioid analgesics administered for pain in the inpatient pediatric setting. J Pain. 2017;18(10):1270–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Berde C, Ablin A, Glazer J, et al. Report of the subcommittee on disease-related pain in childhood cancer. Pediatrics. 1990;86(5):818–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Good P, Afsharimani B, Movva R, Haywood A, Khan S, Hardy J. Therapeutic challenges in cancer pain management: a systematic review of methadone. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2014;28(3):197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Chou R, Cruciani RA, Fiellin DA, et al. Methadone safety: a clinical practice guideline from the American Pain Society and College on problems of drug dependence, in collaboration with the Heart Rhythm Society. J Pain. 2014;15(4):321–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Anghelescu DL, Patel RM, Mahoney DP, et al. Methadone prolongs cardiac conduction in young patients with cancer-related pain. J Opioid Manag. 2016;12(2):131–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Madden K. The frequency of QTc prolongation among pediatric and young adult patients receiving methadone for cancer pain. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(11):e26614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Anghelescu DL, Faughnan LG, Baker JN, Yang J, Kane JR. Use of epidural and peripheral nerve blocks at end of life in children and young adults with cancer: the collaboration between a pain service and a palliative care service. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010;20(12):1070–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Anghelescu DL, Oakes LL, Hankins GM. Treatment of pain in children after limb-sparing surgery: an Institution’s 26-year experience. Pain Manag Nurs. 2011;12(2):82–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Burgoyne LL, Pereiras LA, Bertani LA, et al. Long-term use of nerve block catheters in paediatric patients with cancer related pathologic fractures. Anaesth Intensive Care. 2012;40(4):710–3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Cooper TE, Wiffen PJ, Heathcote LC, et al. Antiepileptic drugs for chronic non-cancer pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD012536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Friedrichsdorf SJ, Nugent AP. Management of neuropathic pain in children with cancer. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2013;7(2):131–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Kukkar A, Bali A, Singh N, Jaggi A. Implications and mechanism of action of gabapentin in neuropathic pain. Arch Pharm Res. 2013;36(3):237–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Jordan RI, Mulvey MR, Bennett MI. A critical appraisal of gabapentinoids for pain in cancer patients. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2018;12(2):108–17; 9000;Publish Ahead of Print.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Collins JJ, Grier HE, Sethna NF, Wilder RT, Berde CB. Regional anesthesia for pain associated with terminal pediatric malignancy. Pain. 1996;65(1):63–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Bernhardt MB. Nausea and vomiting: therapeutic orphans of pediatric oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(10):e26648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Dupuis LL, Lu X, Mitchell H-R, et al. Anxiety, pain, and nausea during the treatment of standard-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective, longitudinal study from the Children’s Oncology Group. Cancer. 2016;122(7):1116–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Rodgers C, Kollar D, Taylor O, et al. Nausea and vomiting perspectives among children receiving moderate to highly emetogenic chemotherapy treatment. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(3):203–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Rodgers C, Norville R, Taylor O, et al. Children’s coping strategies for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2012;39(2):202–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tyc VL, Mulhern RK, Bieberich AA. Anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: an analysis of conditioning and coping variables. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997;18(1):27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Tyc VL, Mulhern RK, Barclay DR, Smith BF, Bieberich AA. Variables associated with anticipatory nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients receiving ondansetron antiemetic therapy. J Pediatr Psychol. 1997;22(1):45–58.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tyc VL, Mulhern RK, Jayawardene D, Fairclough D. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis in pediatric cancer patients: an analysis of coping strategies. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1995;10(5):338–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Redd WH, Montgomery GH, DuHamel KN. Behavioral intervention for cancer treatment side effects. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2001;93(11):810–23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Momani TG, Berry DL. Integrative therapeutic approaches for the management and control of nausea in children undergoing cancer treatment: a systematic review of literature. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2017;34(3):173–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Chan CWH, Lam LW, Li CK, et al. Feasibility of psychoeducational interventions in managing chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting (CANV) in pediatric oncology patients. Eur J Oncol Nurs. 2015;19(2):182–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Yeh CH, Chien L-C, Chiang YC, Lin SW, Huang CK, Ren D. Reduction in nausea and vomiting in children undergoing cancer chemotherapy by either appropriate or sham auricular acupuncture points with standard care. J Altern Complement Med. 2012;18(4):334–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Reindl TK, Geilen W, Hartmann R, et al. Acupuncture against chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric oncology. Support Care Cancer. 2006;14(2):172–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Jones E, Isom S, Kemper KJ, McLean TW. Acupressure for chemotherapy-associated nausea and vomiting in children. J Soc Integr Oncol. 2008;6(4):141–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ndao DH, Ladas EJ, Cheng B, et al. Inhalation aromatherapy in children and adolescents undergoing stem cell infusion: results of a placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Psycho-Oncology. 2012;21(3):247–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Jain S, Kapoor G, Koneru S, Vishwakarma G. A randomized, open-label non-inferiority study to compare palonosetron and ondansetron for prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in children with cancer receiving moderate or high emetogenic chemotherapy. Support Care Cancer. 2018;26(9):3091–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Felix-Ukwu F, Reichert K, Bernhardt MB, Schafer ES, Berger A. Evaluation of aprepitant for acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving high-dose methotrexate. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(2):e26857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Dupuis LL, Robinson PD, Boodhan S, et al. Guideline for the prevention and treatment of anticipatory nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy in pediatric cancer patients. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(8):1506–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Flank J, Nadeem K, Moledina S, et al. Nausea and vomiting in children and adolescents receiving intrathecal methotrexate: a prospective, observational study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(10):e26603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Flank J, Robinson PD, Holdsworth M, et al. Guideline for the treatment of breakthrough and the prevention of refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(7):1144–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Patel P, Robinson PD, Thackray J, et al. Guideline for the prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatric cancer patients: a focused update. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(10):e26542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Phillips RS, Friend AJ, Gibson F, et al. Antiemetic medication for prevention and treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in childhood. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;2:CD007786.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Flank J, Thackray J, Nielson D, et al. Olanzapine for treatment and prevention of acute chemotherapy-induced vomiting in children: a retrospective, multi-center review. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(3):496–501.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Howard Sharp KM, Rowe AE, Russell K, Long A, Phipps S. Predictors of psychological functioning in children with cancer: disposition and cumulative life stressors. Psycho-Oncology. 2015;24(7):779–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Bitsko MJ, Cohen D, Dillon R, Harvey J, Krull K, Klosky JL. Psychosocial late effects in pediatric cancer survivors: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016;63(2):337–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Kurtz BP, Abrams AN. Psychiatric aspects of pediatric cancer. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2010;19(2):401–21, x–xi.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Myers RM, Balsamo L, Lu X, et al. A prospective study of anxiety, depression, and behavioral changes in the first year after diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a report from the Children’s Oncology Group. Cancer. 2014;120(9):1417–25.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Li HCW, Williams PD, Lopez V, Chung JOK, Chiu SY. Relationships among therapy-related symptoms, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in Chinese children hospitalized with cancer: an exploratory study. Cancer Nurs. 2013;36(5):346–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Mitchell H-R, Lu X, Myers RM, et al. Prospective, longitudinal assessment of quality of life in children from diagnosis to three months off treatment for Standard Risk (SR) Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): results of Children’s Oncology Group Study AALL0331. Int J Cancer. 2016;138(2):332–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Durualp E, Altay N. A comparison of emotional indicators and depressive symptom levels of school-age children with and without cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2012;29(4):232–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Trentacosta CJ, Harper FWK, Albrecht TL, Taub JW, Phipps S, Penner LA. Pediatric cancer patients’ treatment-related distress and longer-term anxiety: an individual differences perspective. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2016;37(9):753–61.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Kunin-Batson AS, Lu X, Balsamo L, et al. Prevalence and predictors of anxiety and depression after completion of chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a prospective longitudinal study. Cancer. 2016;122(10):1608–17.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Kazak AE, DeRosa BW, Schwartz LA, et al. Psychological outcomes and health beliefs in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer and controls. J Clin Oncol. 2010;28(12):2002–7.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kazak Anne E, Abrams Annah N, Banks J, et al. Psychosocial assessment as a standard of care in pediatric cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(S5):S426–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Wiener L, Kazak AE, Noll RB, Patenaude AF, Kupst MJ. Standards for the psychosocial care of children with cancer and their families: an introduction to the special issue. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(S5):S419–24.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Thompson Amanda L, Young-Saleme TK. Anticipatory guidance and psychoeducation as a standard of care in pediatric oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(S5):S684–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Steele AC, Mullins LL, Mullins AJ, Muriel AC. Psychosocial interventions and therapeutic support as a standard of care in pediatric oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(S5):S585–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Derman YE, Deatrick JA. Promotion of well-being during treatment for childhood cancer: a literature review of art interventions as a coping strategy. Cancer Nurs. 2016;39(6):E1–E16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    O’Callaghan C, Dun B, Baron A, Barry P. Music’s relevance for children with cancer: music therapists’ qualitative clinical data-mining research. Soc Work Health Care. 2013;52(2–3):125–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Tucquet B, Leung M. Music therapy services in pediatric oncology: a national clinical practice review. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2014;31(6):327–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Portteus A, Ahmad N, Tobey D, Leavey P. The prevalence and use of antidepressant medication in pediatric cancer patients. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2006;16(4):467–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Phipps S, Buckholdt KE, Fernandez L, et al. Pediatric oncologists’ practices of prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for children and adolescents with cancer: a multi-site study. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2012;58(2):210–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Isa PA, Miles J, Emslie G, Coffey DBJ. Depression pharmacotherapy in an adolescent with Hodgkin’s lymphoma. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2012;22(4):316–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Schindera C, Tomlinson D, Bartels U, Gillmeister B, Alli A, Sung L. Predictors of symptoms and site of death in pediatric palliative patients with cancer at end of life. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2013;31(5):548–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Hoell JI, Warfsmann J, Balzer S, Borkhardt A, Janssen G, Kuhlen M. End-of-life care in children with hematologic malignancies. Oncotarget. 2017;8(52):89939–48.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Goldman A, Hewitt M, Collins GS, Childs M, Hain R. Symptoms in children/Young people with progressive malignant disease: United Kingdom Children’s Cancer Study Group/Paediatric Oncology Nurses Forum Survey. Pediatrics. 2006;117(6):e1179–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Pritchard M, Burghen EA, Gattuso JS, West NK, Gajjar P, Srivastava DK, et al. Factors that distinguish symptoms of most concern to parents from other symptoms of dying children. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;39(4):627–36.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2009.08.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Kreicbergs U, Valdimarsdóttir U, Onelöv E, Björk O, Steineck G, Henter J-I. Care-related distress: a Nationwide study of parents who lost their child to cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2005;23(36):9162–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    von Lützau P, Otto M, Hechler T, Metzing S, Wolfe J, Zernikow B. Children dying from cancer: parents’ perspectives on symptoms, quality of life, characteristics of death, and end-of-life decisions. J Palliat Care. 2012;28(4):274–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Kaye EC, Gushue CA, DeMarsh S, et al. Illness and end-of-life experiences of children with cancer who receive palliative care. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(4):1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Widger K, Sutradhar R, Rapoport A, et al. Predictors of specialized pediatric palliative care involvement and impact on patterns of end-of-life care in children with cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2018;36(8):801–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Kaye EC, Rubenstein J, Levine D, Baker JN, Dabbs D, Friebert SE. Pediatric palliative care in the community. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(4):316–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Vern-Gross TZ, Lam CG, Graff Z, et al. Patterns of end-of-life care in children with advanced solid tumor malignancies enrolled on a palliative care service. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;50(3):305–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Kassam A. Parent and clinician preferences for location of end-of-life care: home, hospital or freestanding hospice? Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(5):859–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Barton MK. Early outpatient referral to palliative care services improves end-of-life care. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64(4):223–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Kaye EC, Jerkins J, Gushue CA, et al. Predictors of late palliative care referral in children with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2018;55(6):1550–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Vallero Stefano G, Lijoi S, Bertin D, et al. End-of-life care in pediatric neuro-oncology. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61(11):2004–11.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Veldhuijzen van Zanten SEM, van Meerwijk CLLI, Jansen MHA, et al. Palliative and end-of-life care for children with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma: results from a London cohort study and international survey. Neuro-Oncology. 2016;18(4):582–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Sherbeck JP, Boss RD. Ethical questions about platelet transfusions at the end of life. AMA J Ethics. 2016;18(8):764–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Rahn DA, Mundt AJ, Murphy JD, Schiff D, Adams J, Murphy KT. Clinical outcomes of palliative radiation therapy for children. Pract Radiat Oncol. 2015;5(3):183–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Caussa L, Hijal T, Michon J, Helfre S. Role of palliative radiotherapy in the management of metastatic pediatric neuroblastoma: a retrospective single-institution study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2011;79(1):214–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Mak KS. Clinical outcomes and toxicity following palliative radiotherapy for childhood cancers. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(1):e26764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Rao Avani D, Chen Q, Ermoian Ralph P, et al. Practice patterns of palliative radiation therapy in pediatric oncology patients in an international pediatric research consortium. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2017;64(11):e26589.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Fine PG. Low-dose ketamine in the management of opioid nonresponsive terminal cancer pain. J Pain Symptom Manag. 1999;17(4):296–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Conway M, White N, Jean CS, Zempsky WT, Steven K. Use of continuous intravenous ketamine for end-stage cancer pain in children. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2009;26(2):100–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Bredlau AL, Thakur R, Korones DN, Dworkin RH. Ketamine for pain in adults and children with cancer: a systematic review and synthesis of the literature. Pain Med. 2013;14(10):1505–17.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Anghelescu DL, Faughnan LG, Hankins GM, Ward DA, Oakes LL. Methadone use in children and young adults at a cancer center: a retrospective study. J Opioid Manag. 2011;7(5):353–61.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Madden K, Bruera E. Very-Low-dose methadone to treat refractory neuropathic pain in children with cancer. J Palliat Med. 2017;20(11):1280–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Postovsky S, Moaed B, Krivoy E, Ofir R, Ben Arush MW. Practice of palliative sedation in children with brain tumors and sarcomas at the end of life. Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2007;24(6):409–15.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Anghelescu DL, Hamilton H, Faughnan LG, Johnson L-M, Baker JN. Pediatric palliative sedation therapy with Propofol: recommendations based on experience in children with terminal cancer. J Palliat Med. 2012;15(10):1082–90.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Korzeniewska-Eksterowicz A, Przysło Ł, Fendler W, Stolarska M, Młynarski W. Palliative sedation at home for terminally ill children with cancer. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;48(5):968–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Kiman R. End of life care sedation for children. Curr Opin Support Palliat Care. 2011;5(3):285–90.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Carnevale FA. The birth of tragedy in pediatrics: a Phronetic conception of bioethics. Nurs Ethics. 2007;14(5):571–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Billings JA. Double effect: a useful rule that alone cannot justify hastening death. J Med Ethics. 2011;37(7):437.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Douglas CD, Kerridge IH, Ankeny RA. Double meanings will not save the principle of double effect. J Med Philos. 2014;39(3):304–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Lindblad A, Lynöe N, Juth N. End-of-life decisions and the reinvented rule of double effect: a critical analysis. Bioethics. 2014;28(7):368–77.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Snaman JM. Pediatric oncology: managing pain at the end of life. Paediatr Drugs. 2016;18(3):161–80.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Bodnar J. A review of agents for palliative sedation/continuous deep sedation: pharmacology and practical applications. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2017;31(1):16–37.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Akard TF, Dietrich MS, Friedman DL, et al. Digital storytelling: an innovative legacy-making intervention for children with cancer. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2015;62(4):658–65.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Foster TL, Dietrich MS, Friedman DL, Gordon JE, Gilmer MJ. National Survey of Children’s Hospitals on legacy-making activities. J Palliat Med. 2012;15(5):573–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Foster TL, Gilmer MJ, Davies B, et al. Bereaved parents’ and siblings’ reports of legacies created by children with cancer. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs. 2009;26(6):369–76.PubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Kobler K, Limbo R, Kavanaugh K. Meaningful moments: the use of ritual in perinatal and pediatric death. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007;32(5):288–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Nicholas DB, Barrera M, Granek L, et al. Parental spirituality in life-threatening pediatric cancer. J Psychosoc Oncol. 2017;35(3):323–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Petersen CL. Spiritual care of the child with cancer at the end of life: a concept analysis. J Adv Nurs. 2013;70(6):1243–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Wiener L, McConnell DG, Latella L, Ludi E. Cultural and religious considerations in pediatric palliative care. Palliat Support Care. 2013;11(1):47–67.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Kamper R, Van Cleve L, Savedra M. Children with advanced cancer: responses to a spiritual quality of life interview. J Spec Pediatr Nurs. 2010;15(4):301–6.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Feudtner C. Hospital care for children and young adults in the last year of life: a population-based study. BMC Med. 2003;1:3.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Emmott AS, West N, Zhou G, et al. Validity of simplified versus standard self-report measures of pain intensity in preschool-aged children undergoing venipuncture. J Pain. 2017;18(5):564–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Fowler JW, Dell ML. Stages of faith and identity: birth to teens. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2004;13(1):17–33.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Weaver MS, Rosenberg AR, Tager J, Wichman CS, Wiener L. A summary of pediatric palliative care team structure and services as reported by centers caring for children with cancer. J Palliat Med. 2017;21(4):452–62.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Johnsen AT, Petersen MA, Gluud C, et al. Detailed statistical analysis plan for the Danish Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT). Trials. 2014;15(Journal Article):376-6215-6215-6376.Google Scholar
  274. 274.
    Pinkerton R. Opioid addiction and misuse in adult and adolescent patients with cancer. Intern Med J. 2017;47(6):632–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Soelberg CD. The US opioid crisis: current federal and state legal issues. Anesth Analg. 2017;125(5):1675–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Baker DW. History of the joint commission’s pain standards: lessons for today’s prescription opioid epidemic. JAMA. 2017;317(11):1117–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Song TY, Lee SH, Kim G, Baek HJ, Hwang TJ, Kook H. Improvement of treatment outcome over 2 decades in children with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood Res. 2018;53(1):25–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Tolbert VP, Matthay KK. Neuroblastoma: clinical and biological approach to risk stratification and treatment. Cell Tissue Res. 2018;372(2):195–209.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Khatua S, et al. Childhood Medulloblastoma: current therapies, emerging molecular landscape and newer therapeutic insights. Curr Neuropharmacol. 2018;16(7):1045–58.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Thompson PA, Chintagumpala M. Targeted therapy in bone and soft tissue sarcoma in children and adolescents. Curr Oncol Rep. 2012;14(2):197–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Basch E, Deal AM, Dueck AC, et al. Overall survival results of a trial assessing patient-reported outcomes for symptom monitoring during routine cancer treatment. JAMA. 2017;318(2):197–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Bartholdson CC. Healthcare professionals’ perceptions of the ethical climate in paediatric cancer care. Nurs Ethics. 2016;23(8):877–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Levine DR, Johnson L-M, Snyder A, et al. Integrating palliative care in pediatric oncology: an evolving paradigm for comprehensive cancer care. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2016;14(6):741–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatrics, Hematology-Oncology SectionBaylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Palliative Care Program, Texas Children’s HospitalHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations