Introduction: Demographic Change and Its Implications

  • Barbara Marina Covarrubias Venegas
Part of the Contributions to Management Science book series (MANAGEMENT SC.)


This chapter sets out the problem statement concerning demographic change and its implications. Particular emphasis is given to explain the significance and purpose of this study, namely the consequences of demographic change for organisations. Although the context of this study is Austria, all reasoning is elaborated from both the global and Austrian perspectives. Sub-chapters discuss ageing in light of EUROPE 2020 and Lifelong Learning Strategy as well as ageing in an organisational context. Finally, the pivotal role of Human Resource Management is discussed.


  1. Adsera, A. (2005). Vanishing children: From high unemployment to low fertility in developed countries. Education and Health of Women and Children, 95(2), 189–193.Google Scholar
  2. Barnes-Farrell, J. L., Rumery, S. M., & Swody, C. A. (2002). How do concepts of age relate to work and off-the-job stresses and strains? A field study of health care workers in five nations. Experimental Aging Research, 28(1), 87–98. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beier, M. E., & Kanfer, R. (2013). Work performance and the older worker. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 97–117). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bellmann, L., Hilpert, M., Kistler, E., & Wahse, J. (2003). Herausforderungen des demografischen Wandels für den Arbeitsmarkt und die Betriebe. Mitteilungen aus der Arbeitsmarkts- und Berufsforschung No. 2.Google Scholar
  5. Bengtsson, T., & Scott, K. (2013). World population in historical perspective. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 23–40). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bliem, M., Aigner-Walder, B., & Klinglmair, R. (2012). Demographischer Wandel und Arbeitsmarkt in Kärnten (Vol. 43). Klagenfurt.Google Scholar
  7. Boehm, S. A., Schröder, H. S., & Kunze, F. (2013). Comparative age management: Theoretical perspectives and practical implications. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 211–237). London: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bossaert, D., Demmke, C., & Moilanen, T. (2012). The impact of demographic change and its challenges for the workforce in the European public sectors. Three priority areas to invest in future HRM. EIPA Working Papers No. 2012/W/01.Google Scholar
  9. Burke, R. J., Cooper, C., & Field, J. (2013). The aging workforce: Individual, organizational and societal opportunities and challenges. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 1–20). Washington, DC: SAGE.Google Scholar
  10. Carone, G., Costello, D., Guardia, N. D., Mourre, G., Przywara, B., & Salomaki, A. (2005). The economic impact of ageing populations in the EU25 Member States. Economic Papers No. 236. Brussels.Google Scholar
  11. Conen, W., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2010). Are employers changing their behavior toward older workers? An analysis of employers’ surveys 2000–2009. No. Discussion Paper 03/2010–021. Retrieved from
  12. Cox, T. H., & Blake, S. (1991). Managing cultural diversity: Implications for organizational competitiveness. The Academy of Management Executive, 5(3), 45–56.Google Scholar
  13. De Lange, A. H., Taris, T. W., Jansen, P. G. W., Smulders, P., Houtman, I. L. D., & Kompier, M. A. (2006). Age as a factor in the relation between work and mental health: Results from the longitudinal TAS survey. Health Psychology: European Perspectives on Research, Education and Practice, 1(February 2006), 21–45.Google Scholar
  14. Dychtwald, K., Erickson, T., & Morison, B. (2004). HBR its time to retire retirement.pdf. Harvard Business Review, 82(3), 48–57.Google Scholar
  15. Ekamper, P. (2006). Aging of the labor market in the Netherlands: An overview. In T. S. Rocco & J. G. L. Thijssen (Eds.), Older workers, new directions. Employment and development in an ageing labor market (pp. 41–54). Miami: Center for Labor Research and Studies, Florida International University.Google Scholar
  16. Engelhardt, H. (2010). Late careers in Europe: Effects of individual and institutional factors. Discussion Papers No. 1/2010. Bamberg. Retrieved from
  17. European Commission. (2005). Confronting demographic change: A new solidarity between the generations. Brussels.Google Scholar
  18. European Commission. (2009). Demography report 2008: Meeting social needs in an ageing society. Google Scholar
  19. European Commission. (2013). Unemployment statistics. Retrieved from
  20. European Commission. (2014). Single parents and employment in Europe.
  21. European Union. (2012). European year for active ageing and solidarity between generations. Retrieved May 6, 2016, from
  22. Eurostat. (2015a). Employment rates by age group. Retrieved February 14, 2017, from,_2015_(%2525)_YB16_III.png
  23. Eurostat. (2015b). Labour markets at regional level. Retrieved February 14, 2016, from
  24. Field, J. (2013). Migration and workforce aging. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 75–93). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fiske, S. T., & Lee, T. L. (2008). Stereotypes and prejudice create workplace discrimination. In A. P. Brief (Ed.), Diversity at work (pp. 13–52). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Guillemard, A.-M. (2013). Prolonging working life in an aging world: A cross-national perspective on labor market and welfare policies toward active aging. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 60–74). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guinnane, T. W. (2011). The historical fertility transition: A guide for economists. Journal of Economic Literature, 49(3), 589–614. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hambrick, D. C. (2007). Upper Echelons theory: An update. The Academy of Management Review, 32(2), 334–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Harrison, D. A., & Klein, K. J. (2007). What’s the difference? Diversity constructs as separation, variety, or disparity in organizations. The Academy of Management Review, 32(4), 1199–1228. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Harwood, J., & Giles, H. (1993). Creating intergenerational distance: Language, communication and middle-age. Language Sciences, 15(1), 15–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ilmarinen, J. (2001). Aging workers. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 58(8), 546–552. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ilmarinen, J. (2006). The ageing workforce – challenges for occupational health. Occupational Medicine (Oxford, England), 56(6), 362–364. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kluge, A., & Krings, F. (2008). Attitudes toward older workers and human resource practices. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 67(1), 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kunze, F., & Boehm, S. A. (2013). Research on age diversity in the workforce: Current trends and future research directions. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 41–59). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kunze, F., Boehm, S., & Bruch, H. (2013). Organizational performance consequences of age diversity: Inspecting the role of diversity-friendly HR policies and top managers’ negative age stereotypes. Journal of Management Studies, 50(3), 413–442. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lisiankova, K., & Wright, R. E. (2005). Demographic change and the European Union labour market. National Institute Economic Review, 194(1), 74–81. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Loretto, W., Duncan, C., & White, P. J. (2000). Ageism and employment: Controversies, ambiguities and younger people’s perceptions. Ageing and Society, 20(3), 279–302. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mayerhofer, P., Aigner, B., & Döring, T. (2010). Demographischer Wandel als Herausforderung für Österreich und seine Regionen – Teilbericht 1. Österreichisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung. Google Scholar
  39. Mulders, J. O., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2016). European top managers’ age-related workplace norms and their organizations’ recruitment and retention practices regarding older workers. The Gerontologist, 00(00), 1–11. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Muller-Camen, M., & Flynn, M. (2009). Age diversity at the workplace: A comparative study on the influence of national institutions on employers’ age management practices: Full research report, ESRC end of award report. Swindon. Retrieved from
  41. Naegele, G., & Walker, A. (2006). A guide to good practice in age management. Luxembourg.Google Scholar
  42. Neal, M. B., & Hammer, L. B. (2009). Dual-earner couples in the Sandwiched Generation: Effects of coping strategies over time. The Psychologist-Manager Journal, 12, 205–234. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Neal, M. B., Hammer, L. B., Pines, A. M., Bodner, T. E., & Cannon, M. L. (2013). Working caregivers in the ‘Sandwiched Generation’. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 329–346). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ng, E. S. W., & Law, A. (2014). Keeping up! Older workers’ adaptation in the workplace after age 55. Canadian Journal on Aging, 33(December 2013), 1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. OECD. (2003). Family formation: Does more work lead to fewer births? In Babies and Bosses – Reconciling work and family life: Austria, Ireland and Japan (Vol. 2, pp. 97–230). OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  46. OECD. (2016). Policy brief: Parental leave: Where are the fathers? Retrieved from
  47. Parker, K., & Patten, E. (2013). The Sandwich Generation: Rising financial burdens for middle-aged Americans. Pew Social & Demographic Trends.Google Scholar
  48. Phillipson, C. (2013). Reconstructing work and retirement: Labour market trends and policy issues. In J. Field, R. J. Burke, & C. Cooper (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of aging, work and society (pp. 445–460). Washington, DC: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pierret, C. R. (2006, September). The ‘Sandwich Generation’: Women caring for parents and children. Monthly Labor Review, 129, 3–10.Google Scholar
  50. Pines, A. M., Neal, M. B., Hammer, L. B., & Icekson, T. (2011). Job burnout and couple burnout in dual-earner couples in the Sandwiched Generation. Social Psychology Quarterly, 74(4), 361–386. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rocco, T. S., & Thijssen, J. G. L. (2006). New perspectives on older workers: General introduction. In T. S. Rocco & J. G. L. Thijssen (Eds.), Older workers, new directions. Employment and development in an ageing labor market (pp. 6–16). Miami: Center for Labor Research and Studies, Florida International University.Google Scholar
  52. Sleebos, J. (2003). Low fertility rates in OECD countries: Facts and policy responses. OECD Labour Market and Social Policy Occasional Papers No. 15.Google Scholar
  53. Statistics Austria. (2016). Births and marriages reflecting changes in Austrian society. Retrieved February 16, 2016, from
  54. Statistik Austria. (2009). Demographisches jahrbuch. Wien: Verlag Österreich.Google Scholar
  55. United Nations. (1997). Future expectations for below-replacement fertility. Retrieved from
  56. United Nations. (2005). Population challenges and development goals. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  57. United Nations. (2006). World population prospects: The 2006 revision. New York.Google Scholar
  58. Van Dalen, H. P., Henkens, K., & Schippers, J. (2010). How do employers cope with an ageing workforce? Demographic Research, 22, 1015–1036. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Ours, J. C. van, & Stoeldraijer, L. (2010). Age, wage and productivity (Discussion Paper Series No. 4765). Bonn. Retrieved from
  60. Walker, A. (2006). Active ageing in employment: Its meaning and potential. Asia-Pacific Review, 13(1), 78–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. World Bank. (2001). Life expectancy. Retrieved from
  62. Yrjänheikki, E., & Jokiluoma, H. (2003). The Veto Programme 2003–2007. National action programme on extending working life, well-being at work and rehabilitation. Stencils of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health 2003:18 No. Helsinki: Ministry of Social Affairs and Health. Retrieved from

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barbara Marina Covarrubias Venegas
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ManagementUniversity of Applied Sciences for Management & CommunicationViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations