Autonomous Mobile Vehicle System Overview for Wheeled Ground Applications

  • Luis Carlos Básaca-PreciadoEmail author
  • Néstor Aarón Orozco-García
  • Oscar A. Rosete-Beas
  • Miguel A. Ponce-Camacho
  • Kevin B. Ruiz-López
  • Verónica A. Rojas-Mendizabal
  • Cristobal Capiz-Gómez
  • Julio Francisco Hurtado-Campa
  • Juan Manuel Terrazas-Gaynor


In recent years, the idea of autonomous vehicles has taken on importance since some automobile companies have decided to develop their own autonomous cars. However, not every “autonomous car” is fully autonomous since there are different levels of autonomy. Currently, there is a variety of studies and a great deal of research about autonomous vehicles and on how to achieve full autonomy; even more, these are not limited to cars, but also include research surrounding mobile robots, drones, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and others. All these robots or vehicles have the same principles, in addition to having the same basics of the hardware. However, not the same can be said about the software because every solution requires unique algorithms for their data processing. In this chapter, the most important topics related to autonomous vehicles are explained as clearly as possible. This chapter covers from its main concepts to path planning, going through the basic components that an autonomous vehicle must have, all the way to the perception it has of its environment, including the identification of obstacles, signs and routes. Then, inquiry will be made into the most commonly used hardware for the development of these vehicles. In the last part of this chapter, the case study “Intelligent Transportation Scheme for Autonomous Vehicles in Smart Campus” is incorporated in order to help illustrate the goal of this chapter. Finally, an insight is included on how the innovation on business models can and will change the future of vehicles.


Self-driving car SLAM Sensors Smart campus Autonomous vehicle Mobile robot 



Two dimensional


Three dimensional


Automated storage and retrieval system


BeiDou Navigation Satellite System


Concurrent mapping and localization


Cycles per revolution


Differential global positioning system


Degree of freedom


Frequency-modulated continuous wave


Field programmable gate array


Global navigation satellite system


Global positioning system


Infrared radiation


Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System


Information technologies


Inertial measurement unit


Light detection and ranging


Micro aerial vehicle


Medium earth orbit


Manual on uniform traffic control devices


Obstacle detection


Pulses per revolution


Radio detection and ranging


Remotely operated vehicle


Society of Automotive Engineers


Simultaneous localization and mapping


System on a chip


Storage and retrieval


Time of flight


Traffic sign recognition


Unit load


Visual odometry



The authors would like to thank Center of Innovation and Design (CEID) of CETYS University Mexicali Campus for all facilities to perform the research and for providing the necessary resources to develop this project. Also, special thanks to the image illustrators Luis Esquivel, Alexa Macías, and Valeria Muñoz.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Carlos Básaca-Preciado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Néstor Aarón Orozco-García
    • 1
  • Oscar A. Rosete-Beas
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Ponce-Camacho
    • 1
  • Kevin B. Ruiz-López
    • 1
  • Verónica A. Rojas-Mendizabal
    • 1
  • Cristobal Capiz-Gómez
    • 1
  • Julio Francisco Hurtado-Campa
    • 1
  • Juan Manuel Terrazas-Gaynor
    • 1
  1. 1.CETYS UniversidadMexicaliMexico

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