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Autonomous Mobile Vehicle System Overview for Wheeled Ground Applications

  • Luis Carlos Básaca-PreciadoEmail author
  • Néstor Aarón Orozco-García
  • Oscar A. Rosete-Beas
  • Miguel A. Ponce-Camacho
  • Kevin B. Ruiz-López
  • Verónica A. Rojas-Mendizabal
  • Cristobal Capiz-Gómez
  • Julio Francisco Hurtado-Campa
  • Juan Manuel Terrazas-Gaynor
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, the idea of autonomous vehicles has taken on importance since some automobile companies have decided to develop their own autonomous cars. However, not every “autonomous car” is fully autonomous since there are different levels of autonomy. Currently, there is a variety of studies and a great deal of research about autonomous vehicles and on how to achieve full autonomy; even more, these are not limited to cars, but also include research surrounding mobile robots, drones, remotely operated vehicles (ROVs), and others. All these robots or vehicles have the same principles, in addition to having the same basics of the hardware. However, not the same can be said about the software because every solution requires unique algorithms for their data processing. In this chapter, the most important topics related to autonomous vehicles are explained as clearly as possible. This chapter covers from its main concepts to path planning, going through the basic components that an autonomous vehicle must have, all the way to the perception it has of its environment, including the identification of obstacles, signs and routes. Then, inquiry will be made into the most commonly used hardware for the development of these vehicles. In the last part of this chapter, the case study “Intelligent Transportation Scheme for Autonomous Vehicles in Smart Campus” is incorporated in order to help illustrate the goal of this chapter. Finally, an insight is included on how the innovation on business models can and will change the future of vehicles.

Keywords

Self-driving car SLAM Sensors Smart campus Autonomous vehicle Mobile robot 

Acronyms

2D

Two dimensional

3D

Three dimensional

AS/RS

Automated storage and retrieval system

BDS

BeiDou Navigation Satellite System

CML

Concurrent mapping and localization

CPR

Cycles per revolution

DGPS

Differential global positioning system

DoF

Degree of freedom

FMCW

Frequency-modulated continuous wave

FPGA

Field programmable gate array

GNSS

Global navigation satellite system

GPS

Global positioning system

IR

Infrared radiation

IRNSS

Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System

IT

Information technologies

IMU

Inertial measurement unit

LiDAR

Light detection and ranging

MAV

Micro aerial vehicle

MEO

Medium earth orbit

MUTCD

Manual on uniform traffic control devices

OD

Obstacle detection

PPR

Pulses per revolution

RADAR

Radio detection and ranging

ROV

Remotely operated vehicle

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

SLAM

Simultaneous localization and mapping

SoC

System on a chip

S/R

Storage and retrieval

ToF

Time of flight

TSR

Traffic sign recognition

UL

Unit load

VO

Visual odometry

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Center of Innovation and Design (CEID) of CETYS University Mexicali Campus for all facilities to perform the research and for providing the necessary resources to develop this project. Also, special thanks to the image illustrators Luis Esquivel, Alexa Macías, and Valeria Muñoz.

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luis Carlos Básaca-Preciado
    • 1
    Email author
  • Néstor Aarón Orozco-García
    • 1
  • Oscar A. Rosete-Beas
    • 1
  • Miguel A. Ponce-Camacho
    • 1
  • Kevin B. Ruiz-López
    • 1
  • Verónica A. Rojas-Mendizabal
    • 1
  • Cristobal Capiz-Gómez
    • 1
  • Julio Francisco Hurtado-Campa
    • 1
  • Juan Manuel Terrazas-Gaynor
    • 1
  1. 1.CETYS UniversidadMexicaliMexico

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