How Flow and Mindfulness Interact with Each Other in Different Types of Mandala Coloring Activities?

  • Hao ChenEmail author
  • Chao LiuEmail author
  • Wen-Ko ChiouEmail author
  • Rungtai LinEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11576)


Mandala coloring has been receiving increasing attention in the literature and throughout popular culture. Previous research also indicated that high level of mindfulness may increase flow experience. The literature also suggests that teamwork may moderate the relationship between challenge and flow state, help subjects to overcome challenges and improve their flow state. Therefore based on the previous studies, our study wants to explore: (1) whether mandala coloring can improve mindfulness and flow; (2) what is the relationship between mindfulness and flow during the process of mandala coloring; and (3) whether teamwork can improve the state of flow in mandala coloring activity? Participants were 76 university students, divided into two groups: High-skill (n = 38) and low-skill (n = 38). The two groups performed three mandala coloring experiments in sequence: Structured mandala, Free mandala, and Cooperative mandala. Measurements of state mindfulness and state flow were taken for one pre-assessment of the whole experiment and three pre-assessments of each the three mandala activities. Results indicated that short-term mandala coloring exercises can’t improve mindfulness but can significantly improve the flow state. There is a significant positive relationship between mindfulness and some dimensions of flow (e.g., Concentration on task, Unambiguous feedback, Sense of control, Challenge-skill balance, and Autotelic experience). But a negative correlation was found between mindfulness and loss of self-consciousness dimension. Free mandala is challenging for participants in the low-skilled group, but teamwork in cooperative mandala can help them to overcome this challenge. The contribution of this research is to provide a reference for further understanding of the mechanisms that how mandala coloring can help improve subjects’ mental state and enhance positive psychology.


Mandala coloring Mindfulness Flow Teamwork 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ManagementChang Gung UniversityTaoyuan CityTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Industrial DesignChang Gung UniversityTaoyuan CityTaiwan
  3. 3.Graduate School of Creative Industry DesignNational Taiwan University of ArtsNew Taipei CityTaiwan

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