Introduction: International Network for the Sustainability of Drylands—Transdisciplinary and Participatory Research for Dryland Stewardship and Sustainable Development

  • E. Huber-SannwaldEmail author
  • N. Martínez-Tagüeña
  • I. Espejel
  • S. Lucatello
  • D. L. Coppock
  • V. M. Reyes Gómez
Part of the Springer Climate book series (SPCL)


Drylands are the largest biome complex on Planet Earth and home to over 40% of the human population. Their extraordinary high biotic and cultural richness is endangered by global climate change, land use pressures including coastal/marine systems, and environmental degradation. Understanding and maintaining the functional integrity of dryland socio-ecological systems (DSES) is fundamental for sustainable development. It requires resilience-based dryland stewardship, where land users, managers and decision-makers incorporate change, as understood from the multiple actors’ perspective of a SES, into their planning and governance. The linkage of America’s drylands with west Africa and Southern Europe is often overseen, however increasing economic activities in these DSES have enormous impacts on their functional integrity. In response to this daunting task, academic and government institutions founded the Agadir Platform as a coordinating instrument for cooperation in the Global South. As focal node of this platform, Mexico established the first international network to co-generate knowledge through transdisciplinary research partnerships. We present the conceptual framework of this network highlighting 1) the socio-ecological system’s approach, 2) the transdisciplinary scope of participatory research, 3) the intercultural action scheme, and 4) the repercussions of this integrated approach on polycentric governance. This book includes diverse examples of the application of this framework in DSES ranging from co-designing socio-ecological development projects, to adaptive management, and policy development.


RISZA Transdisciplinary networks Co-designed projects Arid lands Participative research South-South and triangular cooperation 



The authors greatly appreciate the stimulating discussions and dialogues with members of the RISZA network during many workshops and group meetings; a special thank you to Mark Stafford Smith, Chair of the Science Committee of Future Earth. A special thanks to Ana Delia del Pilar Moran Mendoza for logistic support in compiling all chapters of this book. EHS gratefully acknowledges financial support by CONACYT (projects CB 2015-251388B, 293793, PDCPN-2017/5036).


  1. Adams WA (2009) Green development: environment and sustainability in a developing world, 3rd edn. Routledge, London, pp 225–228Google Scholar
  2. Aeschbach W, Gleeson T (2012) Regional strategies for the accelerating global problem of groundwater depletion. Nat Geosci 5:853–861CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Akhtar-Schuster M, Stringer LC, Erlewein A, Metternicht G, Minelli S, Safriel U, Sommer S (2017) Unpacking the concept of land degradation neutrality and addressing its operation through the Rio conventions. J Environ Manage 195:4–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alsina M (2003) La comunicación intercultural Barcelona. Ed. Antropos, ParisGoogle Scholar
  5. Amdan L, Aragón RM, Jobbágy EG, Volante J, Paruelo JM (2013) Onset of deep drainage and salt mobilization following forest clearing and cultivation in the Chaco plains (Argentina). Water Resour Res 49:6601–6612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Ander-Egg E (1990) Repensando la Investigación-Acción-Participativa, Colección Política, Servicios y Trabajo Social. Grupo Editorial Lumen Humanitas, Buenos AiresGoogle Scholar
  7. Archibold OW (1995) Ecology of world vegetation. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ashby WR (1962) Principles of the self-organizing system. In: Von Foerster H, Zopf GW Jr (eds) Principles of self-organization: transactions of the University of Illinois Symposium. Pergamon Press, London, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  9. Bar-Yam Y (1997) Dynamics of complex systems. Westview Press, New EnglandGoogle Scholar
  10. Bastin JF, Berrahmouni N, Grainger A, Maniatis D, Mollicone D, Moore R, Patriarca C, Picard N, Sparrow B, Abraham EM, Aloui K, Atesoglu A, Attore F, Bassüllü C, Bey A, Garzuglia M, García Montero LG, Groot N, Guerin G, Lastadius L, Lowe AJ, Mamane B, Marchi G, Patterson P, Rezende M, Ricci S, Salcedo I, Sanchez Paus Diaz A, Stolle F, Surappaeva V, Castro R (2017) The extent of forest in dryland biomes. Science 356:635–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bautista S, Llovet J, Ocampo-Melgar A, Vilagrosa A, Mayor ÁG, Murias C, Vallejo VR, Orr BJ (2017) Integrating knowledge exchange and the assessment of dryland management alternatives – a learning-centered participatory approach. J Environ Manag 195:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Behnke RH, Mortimore M (2016) The end of desertification? Springer, New York, p 560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berkes F, Colding J, Folke C (2008) Navigating social-ecological systems: building resilience for complexity and change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 394 ppGoogle Scholar
  14. von Bertalanffy L (1968) General systems theory. George Braziller, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Bestelmeyer BT, Okin GS, Duniway MC, Archer SR, Sayre NF, Williamson JC, Herrick JE (2015) Desertification, land use, and the transformation of global drylands. Front Ecol Environ 13:28–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Biesbroek R, Berrang-Ford L, Ford JD, Tanabe A, Austin SE, Lesnikowski A (2017) Data, concepts and methods for large-n comparative climate change adaptation policy research: a systematic literature review. Clim Chang 9:e548Google Scholar
  17. Biggs R, Schlüter M, Biggs D et al (2012) Towards principles for enhancing the resilience of ecosystem services. Annu Rev Environ Resour 37:421–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Biggs R, Schlüter M, Schoon ML (2015) Principles for building resilience. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bodin Ö (2017) Collaborative environmental governance: achieving collective action in social-ecological systems. Science 357(6352):eaan1114. Scholar
  20. Boege E (2008) El Patrimonio biocultural de los pueblos indígenas de México. Hacia la conservación in situ de la biodiversidad y agrodiversidad en los territorios indígenas. INAH, CDI, Ciudad de MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  21. Castañares Maddox EJ (2009) Sistemas complejos y gestión ambiental: el caso del Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano México. Comisión Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Corredor Biológico Mesoamericano México, Ciudad de MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  22. Challenger A, Cordova A, Lazos Chavero E, Equihua M, Maass M (2018) Opportunities and obstacles to socioecosystem based environmental policy in Mexico: expert opinion at the science-policy interface. Ecol Soc 23(2):31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chambers R (1983) Rural development: putting the last first. Harlow, Prentice HallGoogle Scholar
  24. Chapin FS III, Carpenter SR, Kofinas GP, Folke C, Abel N, Clark WC, Olsson P, Stafford Smith DM, Walker B, Younq OR, Berkes F, Biggs R, Grove JM, Naylor RL, Pinkerton E, Steffen W, Swanson FJ (2009c) Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends Ecol Evol 25(4):241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chapin FS III, Folke C, Kofinas GP (2009a) A framework for understanding change. In: Chapin FS III, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship. Springer, New York, pp 3–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chapin FS III, Kofinas GP, Folke C, Carpenter SR, Olsson P, Abel N, Biggs R, Naylor RL, Pinkerton E, Stafford Smith DM, Steffen W, Walker B, Young OR (2009b) Resilience based stewardship: strategies for navigating sustainable pathways in a changing world. In: Chapin FS III, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship. Springer, New York, pp 319–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapin M, Lamb Z, Threlkeld B (2005) Mapping indigenous lands. Annu Rev Anthropol 34:619–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chasek P, Safriel U, Shikongo S, Futran Fuhrman V (2015) Operationalizing zero net land degradation: the next stage in international efforts to combat desertification? J Arid Environ 112:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cherlet M, Hutchinson C, Reynolds JF, Hill J, Sommer S, von Maltitz G (2018) World atlas of desertification. Publication Office of the European Union, LuxembourgGoogle Scholar
  30. Clark W, van Kerkhoff L, Lebel L, Gallopin GC (2016) Crafting usable knowledge for sustainable development. Proc Natl Acad Sci 113(17):4570–4578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coppock DL, Fernández-Giménez F, Hiernaux P, Huber-Sannwald E, Schloeder C, Valdivia C, Arredondo JT, Jacobs M, Turin C, Turner M (2017) Rangeland systems in developing nations: conceptual advances and societal implications. In: Briske DD (ed) Rangeland Systems. Springer, New York, pp 569–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Coppock LD (2016) Cast off the shackles of academia! Use participatory approaches to tackle real-world problems with underserved populations. Rangelands 38(1):5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Cowie AL, Orr BJ, Castillo Sanchez VM, Chasek P, Crossman ND, Erlewein A, Louwagie G, Maron M, Metternicht GI, Minelli S, Tengberg AE, Walter S, Welton S (2018) Land in balance: the scientific conceptual framework for land degradation neutrality. Environ Sci Policy 79:25–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Curtin CG (2015) The science of open spaces. Island Press, Washington, DCCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. D’Odorico P, Bhattachan A, Davis K, Ravi S, Runyan C (2013) Global desertification: drivers and feedbacks. Adv Water Resour 51:326–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dados N, Conell R (2012) The global south. Contexts 11(1):12–13. Scholar
  37. Daily G (1997) Nature’s services. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  38. Dardel C, Kergoat L, Hiernaux P et al (2014) Re-greening Sahel: 30 years of remote sensing data and field observations (Mali, Niger). Remote Sens Environ 140(1):350–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Davidson-Hunt IJ, O’Flaherty RM (2007) Researchers, indigenous peoples, and place-based learning communities. Soc Nat Resour 20(4):291–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Davies J, Poulsen L, Schulte-Herbrüggen B, Mackinnon K, Crawhall N, Henwood WD, Dudley N, Smith J, Gudka M (2012) Conserving dryland biodiversity. IUCN, Nairobi, xii+84 pGoogle Scholar
  41. Davies J, Robinson LW, Ericksen PJ (2015) Development process resilience and sustainable development: insights from the drylands of eastern Africa. Soc Nat Resour 28(3):328–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Davis DK (2016a) The arid lands: history, power, knowledge. MIT Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Davis DK (2016b) Deserts and drylands before the age of desertification. In: Behnke RH, Mortimore M (eds) The end of desertification? Springer, New York, pp 203–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. De Vente J, Bautista S, Orr B (2017) Preface: optimizing science impact for effective implementation of sustainable land management. J Environ Manage 195:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. DeFries R, Nagendra H (2017) Ecosystem management as a wicked problem. Science 356:265–270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Díaz Foncea M, Marcuello C, Marcuello C (2012) Empresas sociales y evaluación del impacto social. CIRIEC-España Rev Econ Pública Soc Coop 75:179–198Google Scholar
  47. Díaz S, Demissew S, Carabias J, Joly C, Lonsdale M, Ash N, Larigauderie A, Adhikari JR, Arico S, Báldi A, Bartuska A, Baste I, Bilgin A, Brondizio E, MaChan K, Figuero VE, Duraiappah A, Fischer M, Zlatanova D (2015) The IPBES conceptual framework — connecting nature and people. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 14:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Díaz S, Pascual U, Stenseke M, Martín-López B, Watson RT, Molnár Z, Hill R, Chan KMA, Baste IA, Brauman KA, Polasky S, Church A, Lonsdale M, Larigauderie A, Leadley PW, van Oudenhoven APE, van der Plaat F, Schröter M, Lavorel S, Aumeeruddy-Thomas Y, Bukvareva E, Davies K, Demissew S, Erpul G, Failler P, Guerra CA, Hewitt CL, Keune H, Lindley S, Shirayama Y (2018) Assessing nature’s contributions to people. Science 359(6373):270–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Donohue RJ, Roderick ML, McVicar TR, Farquhar GD (2013) Impact of CO2 fertilization on maximum foliage cover across the globe’s warm, arid environments. Geophys Res Lett 40:3031–3035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Dregne HE, Chou NT (1992) Global desertification dimensions and costs. In: Degradation and restoration of arid lands. Texas Tech. University, Lubbock, pp 73–92Google Scholar
  51. Dressler W, Büscher B, Schoon M, Brockington D, Hayes T, Kull CA, McCarthy J, Shrestha K (2010) From hope to crisis and back again? A critical history of the global CBNRM narrative. Environ Conserv 37:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Dudley N (2008) Guidelines for applying protected area management categories. IUCN, GlandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Durose C, Richardson L, Perry B (2018) Craft metrics to value co-production. Nature 562:32–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Durston J, Miranda F (2002) Experiencias y metodología de la investigación participativa. Serie Políticas sociales. División de Desarrollo Social, CEPAL, Publicación Naciones Unidas, Santiago de ChileGoogle Scholar
  55. Easdale MH (2016) Zero net livelihood degradation – the quest for a multidimensional protocol to combat desertification. Soil 2:129–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations) (2018) World livestock: transforming the livestock sector through the sustainable development goals. Rome. 222 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGOGoogle Scholar
  57. Feng S, Fu Q (2013) Expansion of global drylands under warming climate. Atmos Chem Phys 13(9):10081–10094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Figueroa M (2011) Indigenous peoples and cultural losses. In: The Oxford handbook of climate change and society. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 232–249Google Scholar
  59. Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker BH, Scheffer M, Chapin FS III, Rockström J (2010) Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol Soc 15:20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Folke C, Chapin FS III, Olsson P (2009) Transformations in ecosystem stewardship. In: Chapin FS III, Kofinas PG, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship: resilience-based natural resource management in a changing world. Springer, New York, pp 103–125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Freire P (1970) Pedagogy of the oppressed. Continuum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  62. García R (2006) Sistemas Complejos. Conceptos, métodos y fundamentación epistemológica de la investigación interdisciplinaria. GEDISA, Barcelona, 200 ppGoogle Scholar
  63. Geist JJ, Lambin EF (2004) Dynamical causal patterns of desertification. Bioscience 54:817–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Global Land Project (GLP) (2005) Science plan and implementation strategy, IGBP (international geosphere biosphere program) report no. 53. IHDP report no. 19. IGBP Secretariat, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  65. Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V (2013) Reinterpreting change in traditional ecological knowledge. Hum Ecol 41:643–647CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Gorddard R, Colloff MJ, Wise RM, Ware D, Dunlop M (2016) Values, rules and knowledge. Adaptation as change in the decision context. Environ Sci Policy 57:60–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Goudie AS (1986) The search for Timbuktu: a view of deserts. Clarendon Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  68. Grace J, San José J, Meir P, Miranda HS, Montes RA (2006) Productivity and carbon fluxes of tropical savannas. J Biogeogr 33:387–400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Greenberg JB, Park TK (1994) Political ecology. J Political Ecol 1:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Griggs D, Stafford-Smith DM, Gaffney O, Rockström J, Öhman MC, Shyamsundar P, Steffen W, Glaser G, Kanie N, Noble I (2013) Sustainable development goals for people and planet. Nature 495:305–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Gudka M, Davies J, Poulsen L, Schulte-Herbrügger B, MacKinnon K, Crawhall N, Henwood WD, Dudley N, Smith J (2014) Conserving dryland biodiversity: a future vision of sustainable dryland development. Biodiversity 15:143–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Gunderson LH, Holling CS (2002) Panarchy: understanding transformations in human and natural systems. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  73. Gutiérrez Serrano NG (2016) Senderos académicos para el encuentro. Conocimiento transdisciplinario y configuraciones en red. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, 213 ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Herrmann SM, Sop TK (2016) The map is not the territory: how satellite remote sensing and ground evidence have re-shaped the image of Sahelian desertification. In: Behnke RH, Mortimore M (eds) The end of desertification? Springer, New York, pp 117–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hickey G (2018) Co-production from proposal to paper: share power in five ways. Nature 562:29–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hickey G, Brearley S, Coldham T, Denegri S, Green G, Staniszewska S et al (2018) Guidance on co-producing a research project. INVOLVE, Southampton Scholar
  77. Holling CS (1988) Temperate forest insect outbreaks, tropical deforestation and migratory birds. Mem Entomol Soc Can 146:21–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Holling CS, Meffe GK (1996) Command and control and the pathology of natural resource management. Conserv Biol 10:328–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Huaico Malhue AI, Romero Díaz A, Espejel Carbajal MI (2018) Evolución de los enfoques en desertificación. Cuad Geogr 57(2):53–71Google Scholar
  80. Huang J, Guan X, Ji F (2012) Enhanced cold-season warming in semi-arid regions. Atmos Chem Phys 12(12):5391–5398CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Huang J, Li Y, Fu C, Chen F, Fu Q, Dai A, Shinoda M, Ma Z, Guo W, Li Z, Zhang L, Liu Y, Yu H, He Y, Xie Y, Guan X, Ji M, Lin L, Wang S, Yan H, Wanget G (2017b) Dryland climate change: recent progress and challenges. Rev Geophys 55:719–778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Huang J, Yu H, Dai A, Wei Y, Kang L (2017a) Potential threats over drylands behind 2°C global warming target. Nat Clim Change 7:417–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Huang J, Yu H, Guan X, Wang G, Guo R (2015) Accelerated dryland expansion under climate change. Nat Clim Chang 6(2):166–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Huber-Sannwald E, Ribeiro Palacios M, Arredondo JT, Braasch M, Martínez Peña M, García de Alba J, Monzalvo K (2012) Navigating challenges and opportunities of land degradation and sustainable livelihood development. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 367:3158–3177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hulme M (1996) Recent climate change in the world’s drylands. Geophys Res Lett 23(1):61–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. INEGI (2019) México: Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.
  87. Jia B, Zhang Z, Ci L, Ren Y, Pan B, Zhang Z (2004) Oasis land-use dynamics and its influence on the oasis environment in Xinjiang, China. J Arid Environ 56(1):11–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Johnson JT, Howitt R, Cajete G, Berkes F, Pualani Louis R, Kliskey A (2016) Weaving indigenous and sustainability sciences to diversify our methods. Sustain Sci 11:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Jonathan Davies, Lance W. Robinson, Polly J. Ericksen, (2015) Development Process Resilience and Sustainable Development: Insights from the Drylands of Eastern Africa. Society & Natural Resources 28 (3):328–343Google Scholar
  90. Knapp CN, Fernandez-Gimenez M, Kachergis E, Rudeen A (2011) Using participatory workshops to integrate state-and-transition models created with local knowledge and ecological data. Rangel Ecol Manag 64(2):158–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Kockelmans JJ (1979) Interdisciplinarity and higher education. Penn State University, State CollegeGoogle Scholar
  92. Kofinas GP (2009) Adaptive co-management in socio-ecological governance. principle of ecosystem stewardship. Springer, New York, pp 77–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Koontz TM, Gupta D, Mudliar P, Ranjan P (2015) Adaptive institutions in social-ecological systems governance: a synthesis framework. Environ Sci Policy 35(B):139–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Krätli S (2015) In: de Jode H (ed) Valuing variability: new perspectives on climate-resilient drylands development. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  95. Lambin EF, Turner BL, Geist HJ, Agbola SB, Angelsen A, Bruce JW, Coomes OT, Dirzo R, Fischer G, Folke C, George PS, Homewood K, Imbernon J, Leemans R, Lin X, Moran EF, Mortimore M, Ramakrishnan PS, Richards JF, Skane H, Steffen W, Stone GD, Svedin U, Veldkamp TA, Vogel C, Xu J (2001) The causes of land-use and land-cover change: moving beyond the myths. Glob Environ Chang 11:261–269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Leslie HM, Basurto X, Nenadovic M, Sievanen L, Cavanaugh KC, Cota-Nieto JJ, Erisman BE, Finkbeiner E, Hinojosa-Arango G, Moreno-Báez M, Nagavarapu S, Reddy SMW, Sánchez-Rodríguez S, Siegel K, Ulibarria-Valenzuela JJ, Hudson Weaver A, Aburto-Oropez O (2015) Operationalizing the social-ecological systems framework to assess sustainability. Proc Natl Acad Sci 112(19):5979–5984CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Liu J, Dietz T, Carpenter SR, Alberti M, Folke C, Alberti M, Redman CL, Schneider SH, Ostrom E, Pell AN, Lubchenco J, Taylor WW, Ouyang Z, Deadman P, Kratz T, Provencher W (2007) Coupled human and natural systems. Ambio 36(8):639–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Lindsay C. Stringer, Mark S. Reed, Luuk Fleskens, Richard J. Thomas, Quang Bao Le, Tana Lala-Pritchard, (2017) A New Dryland Development Paradigm Grounded in Empirical Analysis of Dryland Systems Science. Land Degradation & Development 28 (7):1952–1961Google Scholar
  99. Marlowe FW (2005) Hunter-gatherers and human evolution. Evol Anthropol 14:54–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Martínez N, Brenner L, Espejel I (2015) Red de participación institucional en las áreas naturales protegidas de la península de Baja California. Reg Soc 27(62):27–62Google Scholar
  101. Martínez N, Espejel I (2015) La investigación de la gobernanza en México y su aplicabilidad ambiental. Econ Soc Territorio 15(47):153–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Martínez N, Espejel I, Martínez Valdes C (2016) Evaluation of governance in the administration of protected areas on the peninsula of Baja California. Front Norte 28(55):103–129Google Scholar
  103. Martínez-Tagüeña N, Torres Cubillas LA (2018) Walking the desert, paddling the sea: Comcaac mobility in time. J Archaeol Anthropol 49:146–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Matson P (2012) Seeds of sustainability. Lessons from the birthplace of the Green revolution in agriculture. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  105. MEA (2005) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board. Ecosystem and human wellbeing. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  106. Meadows DH (2008) Thinking in systems. EarthScan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  107. Middleton N (2018) Rangeland management and climate hazards in drylands: dust storms, desertification and the overgrazing debate. Nat Hazards 92(1):57–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Middleton N, Stringer L, Goudie A, Thomas D (2011) The forgotten billion: MDG achievement in the drylands. UNDP-UNCCD, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  109. Middleton N, Thomas D (1997) World atlas of desertification, 2nd edn. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  110. Milkoreit M, Hodbod J, Baggio J, Benessaiah K, Calderon Contreras R, Donges JF, Mathias JD, Rocha JC, Schoon M, Werners SE (2017) Defining tipping points for social-ecological systems scholarship – an interdisciplinary literature review. Environ Res Lett 13:033005CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Morin E (1977) El Método. La Naturaleza de la Naturaleza. Ediciones Cátedra, MadridGoogle Scholar
  112. Mortimore M, Anderson S, Cotula L, Davies J, Faccer K, Hesse C et al (2009) Dryland opportunities: a new paradigm for people, ecosystems and development. IUCN, Gland; IIED, LondonGoogle Scholar
  113. Mulgan G (2006) The process of social innovation. Innov Technol Gov Glob 1(2):145–162Google Scholar
  114. Navarro AM, Climent VC (2010) Emprendedurismo y economía social como mecanismos de inserción sociolaboral en tiempos de crisis. REVESCO 100:43–67Google Scholar
  115. Newing H, Eagle CM, Puri RK, Watson CW (2011) Conducting research in conservation: social science methods and practice. Routledge, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  116. Nolan RH, Sinclair J, Eldridge DJ, Ramp D (2018) Biophysical risks to carbon sequestration and storage in Australian drylands. J Environ Manag 208:102–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Noy-Meir I (1973) Desert ecosystems: environment and producers. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 4(1973):25–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Ocampo-Melgar BS, de Steiguer JG, Orr BJ (2017) Potential of an outranking multi-criteria approach to support the participatory assessment of land management actions. J Environ Manag 195:70–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Okpara UT, Stringer LC, Akhtar-Schuster M, Metternicht GI, Dallimer M, Requier-Desjardins M (2018) A social-ecological systems approach is necessary to achieve land degradation neutrality. Environ Sci Policy 89:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Orr BJ, Cowie AL, Castill Sanchez VM, Chasek P, Crossman ND, Erlewein A, Louwagie G, Maron M, Metternicht GI, Minelli S, Tengberg AE, Walter S, Welton S (2017) Scientific conceptual framework for land degradation neutrality. A report of the science-policy interface. United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD), BonnGoogle Scholar
  121. Ostrom E (2000) El gobierno de los bienes comunes. La evolución de las instituciones de acción colectiva. Fondo de Cultura Económica, Ciudad de MéxicoGoogle Scholar
  122. Ostrom E (2009) A general framework for analyzing sustainability of socio-ecological systems. Science 325(5939):419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Oviedo G, Maffi L, Larsen PB (2000) Indigenous and traditional peoples of the world and Ecoregion conservation. An integrated approach to conserving the World’s biological and cultural diversity. WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature, GlandGoogle Scholar
  124. Papanastasis VP, Bautista S, Chouvardas D, Mantzanas K, Papadimitriou M, Mayor AG, Koukioumi P, Papaioannou A, Vallejo RV (2017) Comparative assessment of goods and services provided by grazing regulation and reforestation in degraded Mediterranean rangelands. Land Degrad Dev 28:1178–1187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Pauli D (1985) Anecdotes and the shifting baseline syndrome of fisheries. Trends Ecol Evol 10(10):430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Peters DPC, Havstad KM, Archer SR, Sala OE (2015) Beyond desertification: a new paradigm for dryland landscapes. Front Ecol Environ 13(1):4–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Philis JA, Deiglmeier K, Miller DT (Fall 2008) Rediscovering social innovation. Stanf Soc Innov Rev. Accessed November 2015
  128. Pickett STA, White PS (1985) The ecology of natural disturbance as patch dynamics. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  129. Puigdefábregas J (1998) Ecological impacts of global change on drylands and their implications for desertification. Land Degrad Dev 9:393–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Reed MS, Buenemann M, Atlhopheng J, Akhtar-Schuster M, Bachmann F, Bastin G, Bigas H, Chanda R, Dougill AJ, Essahli W, Evely AC, Fleskens L, Geeson N, Glass JH, Hessel R, Holden J, Ioris A, Kruger B, Liniger HP, Mphinyane W, Nainggolan D, Perkins J, Raymond CM, Ritsema CJ, Schwilch G, Sebego R, Seely M, Stringer LC, Thomas R, Twomlow S, Verzandvoort S (2011) Cross-scale monitoring and assessment of land degradation and sustainable land management: a methodological framework for knowledge management. Land Degrad Dev 22:261–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Reed MS, Stringer LC (2016) Land degradation, desertification and climate change. Anticipating, assessing and adapting to future change. Routledge, London/New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Reid RS, Fernández-Giménez ME, Galvin KA (2014) Dynamics and resilience of rangelands and pastoral peoples around the globe. Annu Rev Environ Resour 39:217–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Reynolds JF, Stafford Smith DM (2002) Global desertification: do humans cause deserts. Dahlem University Press, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  134. Reynolds JF, Stafford Smith DM, Lambin EF, Turner BL II, Mortimore M, Batterbury SPJ, Downing TE, Dowlatabadi H, Fernandez RJ, Herrick JE, Huber-Sannwald E, Leemans R, Lynam T, Maestre FT, Ayarza M, Walker B (2007) Global desertification: building a science for global dryland development. Science 316:847–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Rhodes RAW (1997) Understanding governance: policy networks, governance, reflexivity and accountability (public policy & management). Open University Press, Philadelphia, 252 ppGoogle Scholar
  136. Rittel H, Webber MM (1973) Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. Policy Sci 4:155–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Robbins P (2012) Political ecology: a critical introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, West SussexGoogle Scholar
  138. Safriel U (2017) Land degradation neutrality (LDN) in drylands and beyond – where has it come from and where does it go. Silva Fenn 51:1650. Scholar
  139. Safriel U, Adeel Z, Niemeijer D, Puigdefabregas J, White R, Lal R, Winslow M, Ziedler J, Prince S, Archer E, King C (2005) Dryland systems. In: Hassan R, Scholes R, Ash N (eds) Ecosystems and human Well-being: current state and trends. Island Press, Washington, DC, pp 623–662Google Scholar
  140. Santos B (2002) Hacia una concepción multicultural de los derechos humanos. El Otro Derecho 28:59–83Google Scholar
  141. Scheffer M, Carpenter SR (2003) Catastrophic regime shifts in ecosystems: linking theory to observation. Trends Ecol Evol 18:648–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Schlaepfer DR, Bradford JB, Lauenroth WK, Munson SM, Tietjen B, Hall SA, Wilson SD, Duniway MC, Jia G, Pyke DA, Lkhagva A, Jamiyansharav K (2017) Climate change reduces extent of temperate drylands and intensifies drought in deep soils. Nat Commun 8:14196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Schoon ML, Robards MD, Brown K, Engle N, Meek CL, Biggs R (2015) Politics and the resilience of ecosystem services. In: Biggs R, Schlüter M, Schoon ML (eds) Principles for building resilience. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  144. Schuttenberg HZ, Guth HK (2015) Seeking our shared wisdom: a framework for understanding knowledge coproduction and coproductive capacities. Ecol Soc 20(1):15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Southgate D (1990) The causes of land degradation along “spontaneously” expanding agricultural frontiers in the third world. Land Econ 66(1):93–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Squires VR (2010) Desert transformation or desertification control? J Rangel Sci 1(1):17–21Google Scholar
  147. Stafford Smith DM (2016) Desertification: reflections on the mirage. In: Behnke RH, Mortimore M (eds) The end of desertification? Springer, New York, pp 539–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Stafford Smith DM, Abel N, Walker B, Chapin FS III (2009) Drylands: coping with uncertainty, thresholds, and changes in state. In: Chapin FS III, Kofinas GP, Folke C (eds) Principles of ecosystem stewardship. Springer, New York, pp 171–195CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Stafford Smith DM, Cribb J (2009) Dry times. CSIRO Publishing, ClaytonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Stafford Smith DM, Reynolds JF (2002) Desertification: a new paradigm for an old problem. In: Reynolds JF, Stafford Smith DM (eds) Global desertification: do humans cause deserts? Dahlem workshop reports, vol 88. Dahlem Univ. Press, Berlin, pp 403–424Google Scholar
  151. Stavi I, Lal R (2015) Achieving zero net land degradation: challenges and opportunities. J Arid Environ 112:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Steffen W, Broadgate W, Deutsch L, Gaffney O, Ludwig C (2015) The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the great acceleration. Anthropocene Rev 2(1):81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Steffen W, Crutzen PJ, McNeill JR (2007) The Anthropocene: are humans now overwhelming the great forces of nature? Ambio 36:614–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Stott P (2016) How climate change affects extreme weather events. Science 352(6293):1517–1518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Stringer LC, Reed MS, Fleskens L, Thomas RJ, Le QB, Lala-Pritchard T (2017) A new dryland development paradigm grounded in empirical analysis of dryland systems science. Land Degrad Dev 28(7):1952–1961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Tàbara D, Frantzeskaki N, Hölscher K, Pedde S, Kok K, Lamperti F, Christensen JH, Jäger J, Berry P (2018) Positive tipping points in a rapidly warming world. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2018(31):120–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Tengö M, Hill R, Malmer P, Raymond CM, Spierenburg M, Danielsen F, Elmqvist T, Folke C (2017) Weaving knowledge systems in IPBES, CBD and beyond—lessons learned for sustainability. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 26–27:17–25CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Thomas D, Middleton N (1992) World atlas of desertification. Edward Arnold for UNEP, LondonGoogle Scholar
  159. Toledo V, Barrera-Bassols N (2008) La Memoria Biocultural. La importancia ecológica de las sabidurías tradicionales. Icaria Editorial, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  160. UNCCD (1994) United Nations convention to combat desertification. United Nations, Geneva, p 58Google Scholar
  161. UNCCD (2019) United Nations convention to combat desertification. Land degradation neutrality: land profiles.
  162. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) (2019) Global policy centre on resilient ecosystems and desertification. Nairobi, Kenya. Consulted April 2019Google Scholar
  163. Veldman JW, Buisson E, Durigan G, Fernandes GW, Le Stradie S, Mahy G, Negreiros D, Overbeck GE, Veldman RG, Zaloumis NP, Putz FE, Bond WJ (2015) Toward an old-growth concept for grasslands, savannas, and woodlands. Front Ecol Environ 13(3):154–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Von Wehrden H, Hanspach J, Kazzensky P, Fischer J, Wesche K (2012) Global assessment of the non-equilibrium concept in rangelands. Ecol Appl 22(2):393–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Walker B (1993) Rangeland ecology: understanding and managing change. Ambio 22:2–3Google Scholar
  166. Walker B, Salt D (2006) Resilience thinking: sustaining ecosystems and people in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  167. Wang L, D’Odorico PD, Evans JP, Eldridge DJ, McCabe MF, Caylor KK, King EG (2012) Dryland ecohydrology and climate change: critical issues and technical advances. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 16:2585–2603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Westoby M, Walker B, Noy-Meir I (1989) Opportunistic management of rangelands not at equilibrium. J Range Manag 42(4):266–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Whitfield S, Reed MS (2012) Participatory environmental assessment in drylands: introducing a new approach. J Arid Environ 77:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Whitford WG (2002) Ecology of desert systems. Academic, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  171. Whyte WF (1989) Introduction to action research for the twenty-first century: participation, reflection, and practice. Am Behav Sci 32:502–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wilcox BP, Sorice MG, Young MH (2011) Dryland ecohydrology in the Anthropocene: taking stock of human-ecological interactions. Geogr Compass 5(3):112–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Willyard C, Scudellari M, Nordling L (2018) Partners in science. Nature 562:24–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Yahdjian L, Sala OE, Havstad KM (2015) Rangeland ecosystem services: shifting focus from supply to reconciling supply and demand. Front Ecol Evol 13:44–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Huber-Sannwald
    • 1
    Email author
  • N. Martínez-Tagüeña
    • 2
  • I. Espejel
    • 3
  • S. Lucatello
    • 4
  • D. L. Coppock
    • 5
  • V. M. Reyes Gómez
    • 6
  1. 1.División de Ciencias AmbientalesInstituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y TecnológicaSan Luis PotosiMexico
  2. 2.Cátedra CONACYT, Consortium for ResearchInnovation and Development of Drylands, Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y TecnológicaSan Luis PotosíMexico
  3. 3.Facultad de CienciasUniversidad Autónoma de Baja California UABCEnsenadaMexico
  4. 4.Estudios Ambientales y TerritorialesInstituto MoraMexico CityMexico
  5. 5.Department of Environment and SocietyUtah State UniversityLoganUSA
  6. 6.Red Ambiente y SustentabilidadInstituto de Ecología, A.C.ChihuahuaMéxico

Personalised recommendations