Advertisement

Epileptic and Nonepileptic Seizures after Traumatic Brain Injury

  • Katherine HamiltonEmail author
  • Karen Parko
Chapter

Abstract

Representing approximately 5% of epilepsy in the civilian population and up to 50% in certain military populations, posttraumatic epilepsy warrants both increased clinical attention and research considerations. In this chapter, we will discuss the important definitions when considering posttraumatic epilepsy including the timing of posttraumatic seizures and the severity of head injuries. We will also review the epidemiology and risk factors for posttraumatic epilepsy in both the civilian population and the military and will describe the association of head trauma and psychogenic nonepileptic seizures. Our clinical discussion focuses on the timing of posttraumatic seizures, the utility of diagnostic testing, treatment of posttraumatic epilepsy, and outcomes of these patients. In addition, we elucidate potential pathophysiologic mechanisms underlying posttraumatic epilepsy and consider its role as a model for epileptogenesis in current and future research. We highlight the relevant studies in each section and underscore the theme that more research is certainly needed in most areas of posttraumatic epilepsy.

Keywords

Epilepsy Traumatic Brain Injury Posttraumatic Epilepsy Seizure Anticonvulsant Epidemiology Antiepileptic drugs (AED) Posttraumatic seizures Epileptogenesis Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures Psychogenic seizures 

References

  1. 1.
    Caveness WF, Meirowsky AM, Rish BL, Mohr JP, Kistler JP, Dillon JD, et al. The nature of posttraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 1979;50:545–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy after head injury: an overview. Epilepsia. 2009;50 (Suppl. 2):4–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Faul M, Xu L, Wald MM, Coronado VG. Traumatic brain injury in the United States: emergency department visits, hospitalizations and deaths 2002-2006. Atlanta: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National Center for Injury Prevention and Control; 2010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kovacs SK, Leonessa F, Ling GS. Blast TBI models, neuropathology, and implications for seizure risk. Front Neurol. 2014;5:47.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Snell FI, Halter MJ. A signature wound of war. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2010:1–7.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Zarocostas J. Proliferation of firearms is growing global health problem. Br Med J. 2007;335:470–1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Agrawal A, Timothy J, Pandit L, Manju M. Post-traumatic epilepsy: an overview. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2006;108:433–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hauser WA, Annegers JF, Kurland LT. Prevalence of epilepsy in Rochester, Minnesota, 1940-1980. Epilepsia. 1991;31:429–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Salazar AM, Jabbari B, Vance SC, Grafman J, Amin D, Dillon JD. Epilepsy after penetrating head injury. I. Clinical correlates: a report of the Vietnam head injury study. Neurology. 1985;35:1406–14.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Annegers JF, Coan SP. The risks of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury. Seizure. 2000;9:453–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Annegers JF, Hauser WA, Coan SP, Rocca WA. A population-based study of seizures after traumatic brain injuries. N Engl J Med. 1998;338:20–4.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ferguson PL, Smith GM, Wannamaker BB, Thurman DJ, Pickelsimer EE, Selassie AW. A population-based study of risk of epilepsy after hospitalization for traumatic brain injury. Epilepsia. 2010;51:891–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Herman ST. Epilepsy after brain insult: Targeting epileptogenesis. Neurology. 2002;59(Suppl 5):S21–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Christensen J, Pedersen MG, Pedersen CB, Sidenius P, Olse J, Vestergaard M. Long term risk of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury in children and young adults: a population-based cohort study. Lancet. 2009;373:1105–10.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mahler B, Carlsson S, Andersson T, Adelow C, Ahlbom A, Tomson T. Unprovoked seizures after traumatic brain injury: a population-based case-control study. Epilepsia. 2015;56:1438–44.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Pugh MJ, Orman JA, Jaramillo CA, Salinsky MC, Eapen BC, Towne AR, et al. The prevalence of epilepsy and association with traumatic brain injury in veterans of the Afghanistan and Iraq wars. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2014;30:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Yeh CC, Chen TL, Hu CJ, Chiu WT, Liao CC. Risk of epilepsy after traumatic brain injury: a retrospective population-based cohort study. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:441–5.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Annegers J, Grabow J, Groover R, Laws E, Elveback L, Kurland L. Seizures after head trauma: a population study. Neurology. 1980;30:683–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jennett WB, Lewin W. Traumatic epilepsy after closed head injuries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1960;23:295–301.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Angeleri F, Majkowski J, Cacchio G, Sobieszek S, D’Acunto S, Gesuita R, et al. Posttraumatic epilepsy risk factors: one-year prospective study after head injury. Epilepsia. 1999;40:1222–30.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Englander J, Bushnik T, Duong TT, Cifu DX, Zafonte R, Wright J, et al. Analyzing risk factors for late post-traumatic seizures: a prospective, multicenter investigation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2003;84:365–73.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Asikainen I, Kaste M, Sarna S. Early and late posttraumatic seizure in traumatic brain injury rehabilitation patients: brain injury factors causing late seizures and influence of seizures on long-term outcome. Epilepsia. 1999;40:584–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raymont V, Salazar AM, Lipsky R, Goldman D, Tasick G, Grafman J. Correlates of posttraumatic epilepsy 35 years following combat brain injury. Neurology. 2010;75:224–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Masel BE, Bell RS, Brossart S, Grill RJ, Hayes RL, Levin HS, et al. Galveston brain injury conference 2010: clinical and experimental aspects of blast injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:2143–71.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Okie S. Traumatic brain injury in the war zone. N Engl J Med. 2005;352:2043–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Chase RP, Nevin RL. Population estimates of undocumented incident traumatic brain injuries among combat-deployed US military personnel. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015;30(1):E57–64.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Brundage JF, Taubman SB, Hunt DJ, Clark LL. Whither the “signature wounds of the war” after the war: estimates of incidence rates and proportions of TBI and PTSD diagnoses attributable to background risk, enhanced ascertainment, and active war zone service, active component, U.S Armed Forces, 2003-2014. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report. 2015;22(2):2–11.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Salinksy M, Evrard C, Storzbach D, Pugh MJ. Psychiatric comorbidity in veterans with psychogenic seizures. Epilepsy Behav. 2012;25:345–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Salinksy M, Spencer D, Boudreau E, Ferguson F. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in US veterans. Neurology. 2011;77:945–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salinksy M, Storzbach D, Goy E, Evrad C. Traumatic brain injury and psychogenic seizures in veterans. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015;30:E65–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Chen LL, Baca CB, Choe J, Chen JW, Ayad ME, Cheng EM. Posttraumatic epilepsy in operation enduring freedom/operation Iraqi freedom veterans. Mil Med. 2014;179:492–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lee ST, Lui TN. Early seizures after mild closed head injury. J Neurosurg. 1992;76:435–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Haltiner AM, Temkin NR, Dikmen SS. Risk of seizure recurrence after the first late posttraumatic seizure. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997;78:835–40.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gupta PK, Sayed N, Ding K, Agostini MA, Van Ness PC, Yablon S, et al. Subtypes of post-traumatic epilepsy: clinical, electrophysiological, and imaging features. J Neurotrauma. 2014;31:1439–43.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Diaz-Arrastia R, Agostini MA, Madden CJ, Van Ness PC. Posttraumatic epilepsy: the endophenotypes of a human model of epileptogenesis. Epilepsia. 2009;50(Suppl 2):14–20.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jennett B, van de Sande J. EEG prediction of post-traumatic epilepsy. Epilepsia. 1975;16:251–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D’Alessandro R, Tinuper P, Ferrara R, Cortelli P, Pazzaglia P, Sabattini L, et al. CT scan prediction of late post-traumatic epilepsy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1982;45:1153–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Thiruppathy SP, Muthukumar N. Mild head injury: revisited. Acta Neurochir (Wein). 2004;146(10):1075–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kumar R, Gupta RK, Husain M, Vatsal DK, Chawla S, Rathore RKS, et al. Magnetization transfer MR imaging in patients with posttraumatic epilepsy. Am J Neuroradiol. 2003;23:218–24.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Fox WC, Park MS, Belverud S, Klugh A, Rivet D, Tomlin JM. Contemporary imaging of mild TBI: the journey toward diffusion tensor imaging to assess neuronal damage. Neurol Res. 2013;35:223–32.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hunter JV, Wilde EA, Tong KA, Holshouser BA. Emerging imaging tools for use with traumatic brain injury research. J Neurotrauma. 2012;29:654–71.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Immonen R, Kharatishvili I, Grohn O, Pitkanen A. MRI biomarkers for post-traumatic epileptogenesis. J Neurotrauma. 2013;30:1305–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Temkin NR. Preventing and treating posttraumatic seizures: the human experience. Epilepsia. 2009;50(Suppl. 2):10–3.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Wilensky AJ, Keihm J, Chabal S, Winn HR. A randomized, double-blind study of phenytoin for the prevention of post-traumatic seizures. N Engl J Med. 1990;323:497–502.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Young B, Rapp RP, Norton JA, Haack D, Tibbs PA, Bean JR. Failure of prophylactically administered phenytoin to prevent late post-traumatic seizures. J Neurosurg. 1983;58:236–41.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Temkin NR, Dikmen SS, Anderson GD, Wilensky AJ, Holmes MD, Cohen W, et al. Valproate therapy for prevention of posttraumatic seizures: a randomized trial. J Neurosurg. 1999;91:593–600.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Chang BS, Lowenstein DH, Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology. Practice parameter: antiepileptic drug prophylaxis in severe traumatic brain injury: report of the quality standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of neurology. Neurology. 2003;60(1):10–6.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Szaflarski JP, Sangha KS, Lindsell CJ, Shutter LA. Prospective, randomized, single-blinded comparative trial of intravenous levetiracetam versus phenytoin for seizure prophylaxis. Neurocrit Care. 2010;12:165–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kwan P, Sander JW. The natural history of epilepsy: an epidemiological view. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1376–81.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Hassnain KH, Gordon CM, Chang EF. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in posttraumatic versus nontraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:970–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Heck CN, King-Stephens D, Massey AD, Nair DR, Jobst BC, Barkley GL, et al. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: final results of the RNS system pivotal trial. Epilepsia. 2014;55:432–41.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fisher R, Salanova V, Witt T, Worth R, Henry T, Gross R, et al. Electrical stimulation of the anterior nucleus of thalamus for treatment of refractory epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2010;51:899–908.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Fisher RS, Velasco AL. Electrical brain stimulation for epilepsy. Nat Rev Neurol. 2014;10:261–70.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Rao VR, Parko KL. Clinical approach to posttraumatic epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2015;35:57–63.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Frey LC. Epidemiology of posttraumatic epilepsy: a critical review. Epilepsia. 2003;44(suppl 10):11–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Corkin S, Sullivan EV, Carr FA. Prognostic factors for life expectancy after penetrating head injury. Arch Neurol. 1984;41(9):975–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Algattas H, Huang JH. Traumatic brain injury pathophysiology and treatments: early, intermediate, and late phases post-injury. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;30:309–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Diamond ML, Ritter AC, Failla MD, Boles JA, Conley YP, Kochanek PM, et al. IL-1β associations with posttraumatic epilepsy development: a genetics and biomarker cohort study. Epilepsia. 2015;56:991–1001.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Jensen FE. Posttraumatic Epilepsy: Treatable epileptogenesis. Epilepsia. 2009;50(Suppl. 2):1–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Prince DA, Parada I, Scalise K, Graber K, Jin X, Shen F. Epilepsy following cortical injury: cellular and molecular mechanisms as targets for potential prophylaxis. Epilepsia. 2009;50(Suppl. 2):30–40.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pitkanen A, Immonen RJ, Grohn OHJ, Kharatishvili I. From traumatic brain injury to posttraumatic epilepsy: what animal models tell us about the process and treatment options. Epilepsia. 2009;50(Suppl. 2):21–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kelly KM, Miller ER, Lepsveridze E, Kharlamov E, Mchedlishvili Z. Posttraumatic seizures and epilepsy in adult rats after controlled cortical impact. Epilepsy Res. 2015;117:104–16.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Desai BT, Whitman S, Coonley-Hoganson R, Coleman TE, Gabriel G, Dell J. Seizures and civilian head injuries. Epilepsia. 1983;24:289–96.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hahn YS, Fuchs S, Flannery AM, Barthel MJ, McLone DG. Factors influencing posttraumatic seizures in children. Neurosurgery. 1988;22:864–7.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of NeurologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.VA Epilepsy Centers of Excellence, Department of NeurologyUniversity of California, San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations