Electrophysiology and Bioinstrumentation

  • Scott Francis Davis
  • Jeremy Andrew Bamford


Fundamental to intraoperative monitoring are the principles of electrical recording and stimulation of neural tissue. The monitoring clinician in the surgical suite will record neural activity that is both spontaneous and evoked by electrical stimulation in order to monitor and map the nervous system and ensure intact neural pathways. A conceptual understanding of these processes is one of the main pillars upon which the field of intraoperative monitoring is based. In the early history of intraoperative monitoring, neurophysiologists conceived of and built their own systems for electrically interfacing with the patient’s nervous system. Today, the equipment is purchased from companies that manufacture advanced monitoring devices. These devices automate many of the calculations that had to be performed manually in the past. Nevertheless, the monitoring clinician in the surgical suite must have a working understanding of bioinstrumentation and electrical stimulation and recording techniques in order to ensure valid testing of neural function.


Attenuation Platinum Iridium Glean Aliasing Electrode Ohm’s law Chronaxie Rheobase Averaging Nyquist theorem Sampling Noise Artifact Filters 

Selected References

  1. Blum AS, Rutkove SB. The clinical neurophysiology primer. New York: Humana Press; 2010. p. 526.Google Scholar
  2. Daube JR, Rubin DI. Clinical neurophysiology (contemporary neurology). New York: Oxford University Press; 2009. p. 928.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Scott Francis Davis
    • 1
  • Jeremy Andrew Bamford
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University School of Medicine, Tulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA
  2. 2.Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana StateUniversity Health Sciences CenterNew OrleansUSA

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