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Monitoring Procedures of the Spine

  • Denise A. Birkholz
  • Scott Francis Davis
Chapter

Abstract

The vertebral column is an extremely complex structure, and surgical procedures involving cervical, thoracic, and lumbar levels pose a risk to the neural elements. Although the overall incidence of a major neurologic complication such as paraplegia is low, advances in intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring (IONM) techniques have made multimodality monitoring an effective approach for preventing iatrogenic injury to the nervous system during spinal surgery.

Keywords

Spine Ischemia Osteoporosis Cage Neuropathy 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise A. Birkholz
    • 1
  • Scott Francis Davis
    • 2
  1. 1.Neuromonitoring Associates, LLCLas VegasUSA
  2. 2.Department of AnesthesiologyLouisiana State University School of Medicine, Tulane University School of MedicineNew OrleansUSA

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