Advertisement

Advantages and Potential Consequences of Return to Sport After ACL Reconstruction: Quality of Life, Reinjury Rates, and Knee Osteoarthritis

  • Frank R. Noyes
  • Sue Barber-WestinEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The topic of return to sport (RTS) after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has become the subject of increased scrutiny as a result of publications citing high reinjury rates upon return to high-risk sports postoperatively, as well as disappointing percentages of athletes who are able to RTS. Because the majority of patients who undergo ACL reconstruction are young athletes, the ability to return these individuals to their desired sports levels is paramount and is highly correlated with overall satisfaction and quality of life. This chapter discusses long-term data from ACL reconstruction studies, including reinjury rates and the factors that are most likely related to increased risk of developing arthritis. Reinjury rates (to the ACL in either knee) differ among studies, and it is unclear whether reinjuries are due to younger patient age or participation in high-risk activities per se; failure to restore normal neuromuscular indices (to both knees) may be one major source of this problem. The majority of ACL reconstruction studies show favorable results in terms of improved knee stability and function, and the rates of osteoarthritis (OA) vary widely. Whether RTS after ACL reconstruction correlates with eventual symptomatic OA is unknown at present.

Keywords

Return to sport ACL reinjury ACL knee osteoarthritis Patient satisfaction 

References

  1. 1.
    Sanders TL, Maradit Kremers H, Bryan AJ, Larson DR, Dahm DL, Levy BA, Stuart MJ, Krych AJ. Incidence of anterior cruciate ligament tears and reconstruction: a 21-year population-based study. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(6):1502–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516629944.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ardern CL, Osterberg A, Sonesson S, Gauffin H, Webster KE, Kvist J. Satisfaction with knee function after primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with self-efficacy, quality of life, and returning to the preinjury physical activity. Arthroscopy. 2016;32(8):1631–1638 e1633.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2016.01.035.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ardern CL, Osterberg A, Tagesson S, Gauffin H, Webster KE, Kvist J. The impact of psychological readiness to return to sport and recreational activities after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(22):1613–9.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2014-093842.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Filbay SR, Ackerman IN, Russell TG, Crossley KM. Return to sport matters-longer-term quality of life after ACL reconstruction in people with knee difficulties. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(5):514–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kocher MS, Steadman JR, Briggs K, Zurakowski D, Sterett WI, Hawkins RJ. Determinants of patient satisfaction with outcome after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Bone Joint Surg. 2002;84-A(9):1560–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Novaretti JV, Franciozi CE, Forgas A, Sasaki PH, Ingham SJM, Abdalla RJ. Quadriceps strength deficit at 6 months after ACL reconstruction does not predict return to preinjury sports level. Sports Health. 2018;10(3):266–71.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738118759911.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nwachukwu BU, Voleti PB, Berkanish P, Chang B, Cohn MR, Williams RJ, Allen AA. Return to play and patient satisfaction after ACL reconstruction: study with minimum 2-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg. 2017;99(9):720–5.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.16.00958.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sonesson S, Kvist J, Ardern C, Osterberg A, Silbernagel KG. Psychological factors are important to return to pre-injury sport activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: expect and motivate to satisfy. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(5):1375–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-016-4294-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lynch AD, Logerstedt DS, Grindem H, Eitzen I, Hicks GE, Axe MJ, Engebretsen L, Risberg MA, Snyder-Mackler L. Consensus criteria for defining ‘successful outcome’ after ACL injury and reconstruction: a Delaware-Oslo ACL cohort investigation. Br J Sports Med. 2015;49(5):335–42.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-092299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dingenen B, Gokeler A. Optimization of the return-to-sport paradigm after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a critical step back to move forward. Sports Med. 2017;47(8):1487–500.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-017-0674-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KE. Fear of re-injury in people who have returned to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. J Sci Med Sport. 2012;15(6):488–95.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsams.2012.03.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Whitehead TS, Webster KE. Psychological responses matter in returning to preinjury level of sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(7):1549–58.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513489284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ardern CL. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction-not exactly a one-way ticket back to the preinjury level: a review of contextual factors affecting return to sport after surgery. Sports Health. 2015;7(3):224–30.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738115578131.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Christino MA, Fantry AJ, Vopat BG. Psychological aspects of recovery following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015;23(8):501–9.  https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-14-00173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ellman MB, Sherman SL, Forsythe B, LaPrade RF, Cole BJ, Bach BR Jr. Return to play following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2015;23(5):283–96.  https://doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-13-00183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Everhart JS, Best TM, Flanigan DC. Psychological predictors of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction outcomes: a systematic review. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(3):752–62.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-013-2699-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Faltstrom A, Hagglund M, Kvist J. Factors associated with playing football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in female football players. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2016;26(11):1343–52.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12588.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Flanigan DC, Everhart JS, Pedroza A, Smith T, Kaeding CC. Fear of reinjury (kinesiophobia) and persistent knee symptoms are common factors for lack of return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 2013;29(8):1322–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2013.05.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Garcia GH, Wu HH, Park MJ, Tjoumakaris FP, Tucker BS, Kelly JD, Sennett BJ. Depression symptomatology and anterior cruciate ligament injury: incidence and effect on functional outcome--a prospective cohort study. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(3):572–9.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515612466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hsu CJ, Meierbachtol A, George SZ, Chmielewski TL. Fear of reinjury in athletes. Sports Health. 2017;9(2):162–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738116666813.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lentz TA, Zeppieri G Jr, George SZ, Tillman SM, Moser MW, Farmer KW, Chmielewski TL. Comparison of physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures based on fear of reinjury/lack of confidence and return-to-sport status after ACL reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(2):345–53.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514559707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Podlog L, Heil J, Schulte S. Psychosocial factors in sports injury rehabilitation and return to play. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 2014;25(4):915–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2014.06.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodriguez-Roiz JM, Caballero M, Ares O, Sastre S, Lozano L, Popescu D. Return to recreational sports activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a one- to six-year follow-up study. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg. 2015;135(8):1117–22.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00402-015-2240-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tjong VK, Murnaghan ML, Nyhof-Young JM, Ogilvie-Harris DJ. A qualitative investigation of the decision to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: to play or not to play. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(2):336–42.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513508762.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Webster KE, Nagelli CV, Hewett TE, Feller JA. Factors associated with psychological readiness to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(7):1545–50.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546518773757.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Webster KE, Feller JA, Kimp AJ, Whitehead TS. Low rates of return to preinjury sport after bilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2018;47(2):334–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546518813901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lentz TA, Zeppieri G Jr, Tillman SM, Indelicato PA, Moser MW, George SZ, Chmielewski TL. Return to preinjury sports participation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: contributions of demographic, knee impairment, and self-report measures. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2012;42(11):893–901.  https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2012.4077.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rosso F, Bonasia DE, Cottino U, Cambursano S, Dettoni F, Rossi R. Factors affecting subjective and objective outcomes and return to play in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a retrospective cohort study. Joints. 2018;6(1):23–32.  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1636931.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sandon A, Werner S, Forssblad M. Factors associated with returning to football after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;23(9):2514–21.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-3023-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Baumeister J, Reinecke K, Weiss M. Changed cortical activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a joint position paradigm: an EEG study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(4):473–84.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0838.2007.00702.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Baumeister J, Reinecke K, Schubert M, Weiss M. Altered electrocortical brain activity after ACL reconstruction during force control. J Orthop Res. 2011;29(9):1383–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.21380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Grooms DR, Page SJ, Nichols-Larsen DS, Chaudhari AM, White SE, Onate JA. Neuroplasticity associated with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2017;47(3):180–9.  https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2017.7003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kapreli E, Athanasopoulos S, Gliatis J, Papathanasiou M, Peeters R, Strimpakos N, Van Hecke P, Gouliamos A, Sunaert S. Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency causes brain plasticity: a functional MRI study. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(12):2419–26.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546509343201.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Lepley AS, Gribble PA, Thomas AC, Tevald MA, Sohn DH, Pietrosimone BG. Quadriceps neural alterations in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed patients: a 6-month longitudinal investigation. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015;25(6):828–39.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Luc-Harkey BA, Harkey MS, Pamukoff DN, Kim RH, Royal TK, Blackburn JT, Spang JT, Pietrosimone B. Greater intracortical inhibition associates with lower quadriceps voluntary activation in individuals with ACL reconstruction. Exp Brain Res. 2017;235(4):1129–37.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00221-017-4877-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Miao X, Huang H, Hu X, Li D, Yu Y, Ao Y. The characteristics of EEG power spectra changes after ACL rupture. PLoS One. 2017;12(2):e0170455.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170455.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Swanik CB. Brains and sprains: the brain’s role in noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injuries. J Athl Train. 2015;50(10):1100–2.  https://doi.org/10.4085/1062-6050-50.10.08.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bien DP, Dubuque TJ. Considerations for late stage ACL rehabilitation and return to sport to limit re-injury risk and maximize athletic performance. Int J Sports Phys Ther. 2015;10(2):256–71.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Grooms D, Appelbaum G, Onate J. Neuroplasticity following anterior cruciate ligament injury: a framework for visual-motor training approaches in rehabilitation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2015;45(5):381–93.  https://doi.org/10.2519/jospt.2015.5549.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ahn JH, Kim JG, Wang JH, Jung CH, Lim HC. Long-term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon-bone: an analysis of the factors affecting the development of osteoarthritis. Arthroscopy. 2012;28(8):1114–23.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2011.12.019.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Barenius B, Ponzer S, Shalabi A, Bujak R, Norlen L, Eriksson K. Increased risk of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a 14-year follow-up study of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(5):1049–57.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514526139.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Cantin O, Lustig S, Rongieras F, Saragaglia D, Lefevre N, Graveleau N, Hulet C. Outcome of cartilage at 12 years of follow-up after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. OTSR. 2016;102(7):857–61.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.otsr.2016.06.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Claes S, Hermie L, Verdonk R, Bellemans J, Verdonk P. Is osteoarthritis an inevitable consequence of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? A meta-analysis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(9):1967–76.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2251-8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Devitt BM, Bell SW, Webster KE, Feller JA, Whitehead TS. Surgical treatments of cartilage defects of the knee: systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Knee. 2017;24(3):508–17.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2016.12.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerhard P, Bolt R, Duck K, Mayer R, Friederich NF, Hirschmann MT. Long-term results of arthroscopically assisted anatomical single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft: are there any predictors for the development of osteoarthritis? Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(4):957–64.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2001-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Keays SL, Newcombe PA, Bullock-Saxton JE, Bullock MI, Keays AC. Factors involved in the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(3):455–63.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546509350914.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Li RT, Lorenz S, Xu Y, Harner CD, Fu FH, Irrgang JJ. Predictors of radiographic knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(12):2595–603.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546511424720.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shelbourne KD, Gray T. Minimum 10-year results after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: how the loss of normal knee motion compounds other factors related to the development of osteoarthritis after surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(3):471–80.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546508326709.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Beynnon BD, Uh BS, Johnson RJ, Abate JA, Nichols CE, Fleming BC, Poole AR, Roos H. Rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of programs administered over 2 different time periods. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(3):347–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Beynnon BD, Johnson RJ, Abate JA, Fleming BC, Nichols CE. Treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries, part I. Am J Sports Med. 2005;33(10):1579–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hui C, Salmon LJ, Kok A, Maeno S, Linklater J, Pinczewski LA. Fifteen-year outcome of endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft for “isolated” anterior cruciate ligament tear. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(1):89–98.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510379975.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Myklebust G, Bahr R. Return to play guidelines after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Br J Sports Med. 2005;39(3):127–31.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsm.2004.010900.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Smith MV, Nepple JJ, Wright RW, Matava MJ, Brophy RH. Knee osteoarthritis is associated with previous meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament surgery among elite college American football athletes. Sports Health. 2017;9(3):247–51.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738116683146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Theologis AA, Kuo D, Cheng J, Bolbos RI, Carballido-Gamio J, Ma CB, Li X. Evaluation of bone bruises and associated cartilage in anterior cruciate ligament-injured and -reconstructed knees using quantitative t(1rho) magnetic resonance imaging: 1-year cohort study. Arthroscopy. 2011;27(1):65–76.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2010.06.026.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Weinstein AM, Rome BN, Reichmann WM, Collins JE, Burbine SA, Thornhill TS, Wright J, Katz JN, Losina E. Estimating the burden of total knee replacement in the United States. J Bone Joint Surg. 2013;95(5):385–92.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.L.00206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Makhni EC, Padaki AS, Petridis PD, Steinhaus ME, Ahmad CS, Cole BJ, Bach BR Jr. High variability in outcome reporting patterns in high-impact ACL literature. J Bone Joint Surg. 2015;97(18):1529–42.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.O.00155.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ardern CL, Sonesson S, Forssblad M, Kvist J. Comparison of patient-reported outcomes among those who chose ACL reconstruction or non-surgical treatment. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017;27(5):535–44.  https://doi.org/10.1111/sms.12707.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Salmon LJ, Heath E, Akrawi H, Roe JP, Linklater J, Pinczewski LA. 20-year outcomes of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft: the catastrophic effect of age and posterior tibial slope. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(3):531–43.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517741497.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Morgan MD, Salmon LJ, Waller A, Roe JP, Pinczewski LA. Fifteen-year survival of endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients aged 18 years and younger. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(2):384–92.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515623032.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Shelbourne KD, Gray T, Haro M. Incidence of subsequent injury to either knee within 5 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft. Am J Sports Med. 2009;37(2):246–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Takazawa Y, Ikeda H, Saita Y, Kawasaki T, Ishijima M, Nagayama M, Kaneko H, Kaneko K. Return to play of rugby players after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring autograft: return to sports and graft failure according to age. Arthroscopy. 2017;33(1):181–9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2016.06.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Wiggins AJ, Grandhi RK, Schneider DK, Stanfield D, Webster KE, Myer GD. Risk of secondary injury in younger athletes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(7):1861–76.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515621554.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Grindem H, Snyder-Mackler L, Moksnes H, Engebretsen L, Risberg MA. Simple decision rules can reduce reinjury risk by 84% after ACL reconstruction: the Delaware-Oslo ACL cohort study. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(13):804–8.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2016-096031.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Webster KE, Feller JA, Leigh WB, Richmond AK. Younger patients are at increased risk for graft rupture and contralateral injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(3):641–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513517540.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kaeding CC, Pedroza AD, Reinke EK, Huston LJ, Consortium M, Spindler KP. Risk factors and predictors of subsequent ACL injury in either knee after ACL reconstruction: prospective analysis of 2488 primary ACL reconstructions from the moon cohort. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(7):1583–90.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515578836.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kyritsis P, Bahr R, Landreau P, Miladi R, Witvrouw E. Likelihood of ACL graft rupture: not meeting six clinical discharge criteria before return to sport is associated with a four times greater risk of rupture. Br J Sports Med. 2016;50(15):946–51.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095908.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Kamath GV, Murphy T, Creighton RA, Viradia N, Taft TN, Spang JT. Anterior cruciate ligament injury, return to play, and reinjury in the elite collegiate athlete: analysis of an NCAA Division I Cohort. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(7):1638–43.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514524164.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lefevre N, Klouche S, Mirouse G, Herman S, Gerometta A, Bohu Y. Return to sport after primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective comparative study of 552 patients from the FAST Cohort. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(1):34–41.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516660075.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Faltstrom A, Hagglund M, Magnusson H, Forssblad M, Kvist J. Predictors for additional anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: data from the Swedish national ACL register. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2016;24(3):885–94.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-014-3406-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Whitehead TS, Webster KE. Sports participation 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in athletes who had not returned to sport at 1 year: a prospective follow-up of physical function and psychological factors in 122 athletes. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(4):848–56.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514563282.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Myklebust G, Holm I, Maehlum S, Engebretsen L, Bahr R. Clinical, functional, and radiologic outcome in team handball players 6 to 11 years after anterior cruciate ligament injury: a follow-up study. Am J Sports Med. 2003;31(6):981–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mohtadi N, Chan D, Barber R, Paolucci EO. Reruptures, reinjuries, and revisions at a minimum 2-year follow-up: a randomized clinical trial comparing 3 graft types for ACL reconstruction. Clin J Sport Med. 2016;26(2):96–107.  https://doi.org/10.1097/JSM.0000000000000209.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Park SY, Oh H, Park S, Lee JH, Lee SH, Yoon KH. Factors predicting hamstring tendon autograft diameters and resulting failure rates after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(5):1111–8.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2085-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thompson SM, Salmon LJ, Waller A, Linklater J, Roe JP, Pinczewski LA. Twenty-year outcome of a longitudinal prospective evaluation of isolated endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon or hamstring autograft. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(12):3083–94.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516658041.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Pinczewski LA, Lyman J, Salmon LJ, Russell VJ, Roe J, Linklater J. A 10-year comparison of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions with hamstring tendon and patellar tendon autograft: a controlled, prospective trial. Am J Sports Med. 2007;35(4):564–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hettrich CM, Dunn WR, Reinke EK, Group M, Spindler KP. The rate of subsequent surgery and predictors after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: two- and 6-year follow-up results from a multicenter cohort. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(7):1534–40.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513490277.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Schlumberger M, Schuster P, Schulz M, Immendorfer M, Mayer P, Bartholoma J, Richter J. Traumatic graft rupture after primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: retrospective analysis of incidence and risk factors in 2915 cases. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2015;25(5):1535–41.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-015-3699-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Webster KE, Feller JA. Exploring the high reinjury rate in younger patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(11):2827–32.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516651845.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Persson A, Fjeldsgaard K, Gjertsen JE, Kjellsen AB, Engebretsen L, Hole RM, Fevang JM. Increased risk of revision with hamstring tendon grafts compared with patellar tendon grafts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a study of 12,643 patients from the Norwegian Cruciate Ligament Registry, 2004-2012. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(2):285–91.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513511419.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kamien PM, Hydrick JM, Replogle WH, Go LT, Barrett GR. Age, graft size, and Tegner activity level as predictors of failure in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(8):1808–12.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513493896.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Maletis GB, Inacio MC, Funahashi TT. Risk factors associated with revision and contralateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions in the Kaiser Permanente ACLR registry. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(3):641–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514561745.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Leys T, Salmon L, Waller A, Linklater J, Pinczewski L. Clinical results and risk factors for reinjury 15 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a prospective study of hamstring and patellar tendon grafts. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(3):595–605.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546511430375.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Dekker TJ, Godin JA, Dale KM, Garrett WE, Taylor DC, Riboh JC. Return to sport after pediatric anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and its effect on subsequent anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Bone Joint Surg. 2017;99(11):897–904.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.16.00758.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Andernord D, Desai N, Bjornsson H, Ylander M, Karlsson J, Samuelsson K. Patient predictors of early revision surgery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study of 16,930 patients with 2-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(1):121–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514552788.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Anand BS, Feller JA, Richmond AK, Webster KE. Return-to-sport outcomes after revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(3):580–4.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515618381.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kamath GV, Redfern JC, Greis PE, Burks RT. Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(1):199–217.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510370929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Marchant BG, Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD, Fleckenstein C. Prevalence of nonanatomical graft placement in a series of failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(10):1987–96.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510372797.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    MARS. Effect of graft choice on the outcome of revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort. Am J Sports Med. 2014;42(10):2301–10.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514549005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: report of 11-year experience and results in 114 consecutive patients. Instr Course Lect. 2001;50:451–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Trojani C, Sbihi A, Djian P, Potel JF, Hulet C, Jouve F, Bussiere C, Ehkirch FP, Burdin G, Dubrana F, Beaufils P, Franceschi JP, Chassaing V, Colombet P, Neyret P. Causes for failure of ACL reconstruction and influence of meniscectomies after revision. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2011;19(2):196–201.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-010-1201-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Andernord D, Desai N, Bjornsson H, Gillen S, Karlsson J, Samuelsson K. Predictors of contralateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study of 9061 patients with 5-year follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(2):295–302.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546514557245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Faltstrom A, Kvist J, Gauffin H, Hagglund M. Female soccer players with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction have a higher risk of new knee injuries and quit soccer to a higher degree than knee-healthy controls. Am J Sports Med. 2019;47(1):31–40.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546518808006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Ardern CL, Webster KE, Taylor NF, Feller JA. Return to the preinjury level of competitive sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: two-thirds of patients have not returned by 12 months after surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(3):538–43.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510384798.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Ardern CL, Taylor NF, Feller JA, Webster KE. Fifty-five per cent return to competitive sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis including aspects of physical functioning and contextual factors. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(21):1543–52.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2013-093398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hamrin Senorski E, Samuelsson K, Thomee C, Beischer S, Karlsson J, Thomee R. Return to knee-strenuous sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a report from a rehabilitation outcome registry of patient characteristics. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2017;25(5):1364–74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-016-4280-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nawasreh Z, Logerstedt D, Cummer K, Axe MJ, Risberg MA, Snyder-Mackler L. Do patients failing return-to-activity criteria at 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction continue demonstrating deficits at 2 years? Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(5):1037–48.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516680619.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kay J, Memon M, Marx RG, Peterson D, Simunovic N, Ayeni OR. Over 90 % of children and adolescents return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2018;26(4):1019–36.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-018-4830-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shelbourne KD, Benner RW, Gray T. Results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autografts: objective factors associated with the development of osteoarthritis at 20 to 33 years after surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2017;45(12):2730–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517718827.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Oiestad BE, Holm I, Engebretsen L, Aune AK, Gunderson R, Risberg MA. The prevalence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis 12 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(4):942–9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2161-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Holm I, Oiestad BE, Risberg MA, Gunderson R, Aune AK. No differences in prevalence of osteoarthritis or function after open versus endoscopic technique for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: 12-year follow-up report of a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(11):2492–8.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546512458766.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Murray JR, Lindh AM, Hogan NA, Trezies AJ, Hutchinson JW, Parish E, Read JW, Cross MV. Does anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction lead to degenerative disease? Thirteen-year results after bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(2):404–13.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546511428580.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Pernin J, Verdonk P, Si Selmi TA, Massin P, Neyret P. Long-term follow-up of 24.5 years after intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with lateral extra-articular augmentation. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(6):1094–102.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546509361018.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Inderhaug E, Strand T, Fischer-Bredenbeck C, Solheim E. Long-term results after reconstruction of the ACL with hamstrings autograft and transtibial femoral drilling. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(9):2004–10.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2330-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Struewer J, Ziring E, Frangen TM, Efe T, Meissner S, Buecking B, Bliemel C, Ishaque B. Clinical outcome and prevalence of osteoarthritis after isolated anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring graft: follow-up after two and ten years. Int Orthop. 2013;37(2):271–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-012-1653-z.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Streich NA, Reichenbacher S, Barie A, Buchner M, Schmitt H. Long-term outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with an autologous four-strand semitendinosus tendon autograft. Int Orthop. 2013;37(2):279–84.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-012-1757-5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Janssen RP, du Mee AW, van Valkenburg J, Sala HA, Tseng CM. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with 4-strand hamstring autograft and accelerated rehabilitation: a 10-year prospective study on clinical results, knee osteoarthritis and its predictors. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2013;21(9):1977–88.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-012-2234-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Bjornsson H, Samuelsson K, Sundemo D, Desai N, Sernert N, Rostgard-Christensen L, Karlsson J, Kartus J. A randomized controlled trial with mean 16-year follow-up comparing hamstring and patellar tendon autografts in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(9):2304–13.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516646378.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Sanders TL, Kremers HM, Bryan AJ, Fruth KM, Larson DR, Pareek A, Levy BA, Stuart MJ, Dahm DL, Krych AJ. Is anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction effective in preventing secondary meniscal tears and osteoarthritis? Am J Sports Med. 2016;44(7):1699–707.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546516634325.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ferretti A, Monaco E, Ponzo A, Basiglini L, Iorio R, Caperna L, Conteduca F. Combined intra-articular and extra-articular reconstruction in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee: 25 years later. Arthroscopy. 2016;32(10):2039–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2016.02.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Hanypsiak BT, Spindler KP, Rothrock CR, Calabrese GJ, Richmond B, Herrenbruck TM, Parker RD. Twelve-year follow-up on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: long-term outcomes of prospectively studied osseous and articular injuries. Am J Sports Med. 2008;36(4):671–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Hoffelner T, Resch H, Moroder P, Atzwanger J, Wiplinger M, Hitzl W, Tauber M. No increased occurrence of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction after isolated anterior cruciate ligament injury in athletes. Arthroscopy. 2012;28(4):517–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2011.09.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kessler MA, Behrend H, Henz S, Stutz G, Rukavina A, Kuster MS. Function, osteoarthritis and activity after ACL-rupture: 11 years follow-up results of conservative versus reconstructive treatment. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(5):442–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Thompson S, Salmon L, Waller A, Linklater J, Roe J, Pinczewski L. Twenty-year outcomes of a longitudinal prospective evaluation of isolated endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autografts. Am J Sports Med. 2015;43(9):2164–74.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546515591263.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Wipfler B, Donner S, Zechmann CM, Springer J, Siebold R, Paessler HH. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using patellar tendon versus hamstring tendon: a prospective comparative study with 9-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2011;27(5):653–65.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2011.01.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Meniscus tears: diagnosis, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes. In: Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD, editors. Noyes’ knee disorders: surgery, rehabilitation, clinical outcomes. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017. p. 677–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Andreisek G, White LM, Sussman MS, Kunz M, Hurtig M, Weller I, Essue J, Marks P, Eckstein F. Quantitative MR imaging evaluation of the cartilage thickness and subchondral bone area in patients with ACL-reconstructions 7 years after surgery. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2009;17(7):871–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2008.05.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Culvenor AG, Collins NJ, Guermazi A, Cook JL, Vicenzino B, Khan KM, Beck N, van Leeuwen J, Crossley KM. Early knee osteoarthritis is evident one year following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a magnetic resonance imaging evaluation. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(4):946–55.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.39005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Hart AJ, Buscombe J, Malone A, Dowd GS. Assessment of osteoarthritis after reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: a study using single-photon emission computed tomography at ten years. J Bone Joint Surg. 2005;87(11):1483–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Kellgren JH, Lawrence JS. Radiological assessment of osteo-arthrosis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1957;16(4):494–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Irrgang JJ, Snyder-Mackler L, Wainner RS, Fu FH, Harner CD. Development of a patient-reported measure of function of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg. 1998;80(8):1132–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Ait Si Selmi T, Fithian D, Neyret P. The evolution of osteoarthritis in 103 patients with ACL reconstruction at 17 years follow-up. Knee. 2006;13(5):353–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.knee.2006.02.014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Drogset JO, Grontvedt T, Robak OR, Molster A, Viset AT, Engebretsen L. A sixteen-year follow-up of three operative techniques for the treatment of acute ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2006;88(5):944–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Mihelic R, Jurdana H, Jotanovic Z, Madjarevic T, Tudor A. Long-term results of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison with non-operative treatment with a follow-up of 17-20 years. Int Orthop. 2011;35(7):1093–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-011-1206-x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Nakata K, Shino K, Horibe S, Tanaka Y, Toritsuka Y, Nakamura N, Koyanagi M, Yoshikawa H. Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using fresh-frozen bone plug-free allogeneic tendons: 10-year follow-up. Arthroscopy. 2008;24(3):285–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Salmon LJ, Russell VJ, Refshauge K, Kader D, Connolly C, Linklater J, Pinczewski LA. Long-term outcome of endoscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with patellar tendon autograft: minimum 13-year review. Am J Sports Med. 2006;34(5):721–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Treatment of meniscus tears during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy. 2012;28(1):123–30.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2011.08.292.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bisson LJ, Kluczynski MA, Hagstrom LS, Marzo JM. A prospective study of the association between bone contusion and intra-articular injuries associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament tear. Am J Sports Med. 2013;41(8):1801–7.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546513490649.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Dunn WR, Spindler KP, Amendola A, Andrish JT, Kaeding CC, Marx RG, McCarty EC, Parker RD, Harrell FE Jr, An AQ, Wright RW, Brophy RH, Matava MJ, Flanigan DC, Huston LJ, Jones MH, Wolcott ML, Vidal AF, Wolf BR. Which preoperative factors, including bone bruise, are associated with knee pain/symptoms at index anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR)? A Multicenter Orthopaedic Outcomes Network (MOON) ACLR Cohort Study. Am J Sports Med. 2010;38(9):1778–87.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510370279.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Nishimori M, Deie M, Adachi N, Kanaya A, Nakamae A, Motoyama M, Ochi M. Articular cartilage injury of the posterior lateral tibial plateau associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 2008;16(3):270–4.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00167-007-0458-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Papalia R, Torre G, Vasta S, Zampogna B, Pedersen DR, Denaro V, Amendola A. Bone bruises in anterior cruciate ligament injured knee and long-term outcomes. A review of the evidence. Open Access J Sports Med. 2015;6:37–48.  https://doi.org/10.2147/OAJSM.S75345.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Potter HG, Jain SK, Ma Y, Black BR, Fung S, Lyman S. Cartilage injury after acute, isolated anterior cruciate ligament tear: immediate and longitudinal effect with clinical/MRI follow-up. Am J Sports Med. 2012;40(2):276–85.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546511423380.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Yoon JP, Chang CB, Yoo JH, Kim SJ, Choi JY, Choi JA, Seong SC, Kim TK. Correlation of magnetic resonance imaging findings with the chronicity of an anterior cruciate ligament tear. J Bone Joint Surg. 2010;92(2):353–60.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.I.00031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Yoon KH, Yoo JH, Kim KI. Bone contusion and associated meniscal and medial collateral ligament injury in patients with anterior cruciate ligament rupture. J Bone Joint Surg. 2011;93(16):1510–8.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.J.01320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Frobell RB. Change in cartilage thickness, posttraumatic bone marrow lesions, and joint fluid volumes after acute ACL disruption: a two-year prospective MRI study of sixty-one subjects. J Bone Joint Surg. 2011;93(12):1096–103.  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.J.00929.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Amano K, Huebner JL, Stabler TV, Tanaka M, McCulloch CE, Lobach I, Lane NE, Kraus VB, Ma CB, Li X. Synovial fluid profile at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and its association with cartilage matrix composition 3 years after surgery. Am J Sports Med. 2018;46(4):890–9.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546517749834.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Bigoni M, Sacerdote P, Turati M, Franchi S, Gandolla M, Gaddi D, Moretti S, Munegato D, Augusti CA, Bresciani E, Omeljaniuk RJ, Locatelli V, Torsello A. Acute and late changes in intraarticular cytokine levels following anterior cruciate ligament injury. J Orthop Res. 2013;31(2):315–21.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jor.22208.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Cuellar VG, Cuellar JM, Golish SR, Yeomans DC, Scuderi GJ. Cytokine profiling in acute anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthroscopy. 2010;26(10):1296–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2010.02.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Elsaid KA, Fleming BC, Oksendahl HL, Machan JT, Fadale PD, Hulstyn MJ, Shalvoy R, Jay GD. Decreased lubricin concentrations and markers of joint inflammation in the synovial fluid of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58(6):1707–15.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.23495.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Fang C, Johnson D, Leslie MP, Carlson CS, Robbins M, Di Cesare PE. Tissue distribution and measurement of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-detected bone bruises after acute anterior cruciate ligament tears. J Orthop Res. 2001;19(4):634–41.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0736-0266(00)00039-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Higuchi H, Shirakura K, Kimura M, Terauchi M, Shinozaki T, Watanabe H, Takagishi K. Changes in biochemical parameters after anterior cruciate ligament injury. Int Orthop. 2006;30(1):43–7.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00264-005-0023-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Irie K, Tomatsu T. Atrophy of semitendinosus and gracilis and flexor mechanism function after hamstring tendon harvest for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Orthopedics. 2002;25(5):491–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Lee JH, Ort T, Ma K, Picha K, Carton J, Marsters PA, Lohmander LS, Baribaud F, Song XY, Blake S. Resistin is elevated following traumatic joint injury and causes matrix degradation and release of inflammatory cytokines from articular cartilage in vitro. Osteoarthr Cartil. 2009;17(5):613–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joca.2008.08.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Li H, Chen C, Chen S. Posttraumatic knee osteoarthritis following anterior cruciate ligament injury: potential biochemical mediators of degenerative alteration and specific biochemical markers. Biomed Rep. 2015;3(2):147–51.  https://doi.org/10.3892/br.2014.404.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lohmander LS, Atley LM, Pietka TA, Eyre DR. The release of crosslinked peptides from type II collagen into human synovial fluid is increased soon after joint injury and in osteoarthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48(11):3130–9.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.11326.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lotz MK, Kraus VB. New developments in osteoarthritis. Posttraumatic osteoarthritis: pathogenesis and pharmacological treatment options. Arthritis Res Ther. 2010;12(3):211.  https://doi.org/10.1186/ar3046.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Marks PH, Donaldson ML. Inflammatory cytokine profiles associated with chondral damage in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee. Arthroscopy. 2005;21(11):1342–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2005.08.034.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Mutsuzaki H, Sakane M, Honda K, Ikeda K, Hattori S, Ochiai N. Cell death and cell proliferation in cartilage layers in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertions after rupture. Connect Tissue Res. 2010;51(4):282–8.  https://doi.org/10.3109/03008200903318303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Papathanasiou I, Michalitsis S, Hantes ME, Vlychou M, Anastasopoulou L, Malizos KN, Tsezou A. Molecular changes indicative of cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis development in patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury. BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2016;17:21.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12891-016-0871-8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Struglics A, Larsson S, Kumahashi N, Frobell R, Lohmander LS. Changes in cytokines and aggrecan ARGS neoepitope in synovial fluid and serum and in c-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen and n-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type I collagen in urine over five years after anterior cruciate ligament rupture: an exploratory analysis in the knee anterior cruciate ligament, nonsurgical versus surgical treatment trial. Arthritis Rheumatol. 2015;67(7):1816–25.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.39146.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Tiderius CJ, Olsson LE, Nyquist F, Dahlberg L. Cartilage glycosaminoglycan loss in the acute phase after an anterior cruciate ligament injury: delayed gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of cartilage and synovial fluid analysis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005;52(1):120–7.  https://doi.org/10.1002/art.20795.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Risks of future joint arthritis and reinjury after ACL reconstruction. In: Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD, editors. ACL injuries in the female athlete: causes, impacts, and conditioning programs. 2nd ed; 2018. p. 67–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Arthroscopic repair of meniscal tears extending into the avascular zone in patients younger than twenty years of age. Am J Sports Med. 2002;30(4):589–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Meniscus tears: diagnosis, repair techniques, and clinical outcomes. In: Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD, editors. Noyes’ knee disorders: surgery, rehabilitation, clinical outcomes. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier; 2017. p. 677–718.  https://doi.org/10.1016/b978-0-323-32903-3.00023-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Arthroscopic repair of meniscus tears extending into the avascular zone with or without anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in patients 40 years of age and older. Arthroscopy. 2000;16(8):822–9.  https://doi.org/10.1053/jars.2000.19434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Noyes FR, Chen RC, Barber-Westin SD, Potter HG. Greater than 10-year results of red-white longitudinal meniscal repairs in patients 20 years of age or younger. Am J Sports Med. 2011;39(5):1008–17.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0363546510392014.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rubman MH, Noyes FR, Barber-Westin SD. Arthroscopic repair of meniscal tears that extend into the avascular zone. A review of 198 single and complex tears. Am J Sports Med. 1998;26(1):87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cincinnati Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic CenterThe Noyes Knee InstituteCincinnatiUSA
  2. 2.Noyes Knee InstituteCincinnatiUSA

Personalised recommendations