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Water Supply Challenges and Achievements in Constanta County

  • A. ConstantinEmail author
  • C. St. Nitescu
Chapter
Part of the Springer Water book series (SPWA)

Abstract

Dobrogea is a Romanian region surrounded by waters: Low Danube at West, the Danube Delta at North and the Black Sea East. Although its location is in the proximity of large water bodies, its climate is dry, and it benefits from only a small number of rivers and creeks and some lakes with fresh or brackish water. The groundwater instead is generous, and it represents the main drinking water source. A brief description of the water sources in Dobrogea gives an image of the water supply potential of the region. The first drinkable water supply systems were built long ago, in ancient times, to bring fresh water to Tomis, the city overlapped today by Constanta, the largest Romanian city on the Black Sea coast. Nowadays drinkable water supply systems use mainly groundwater, but also surface water from the Danube. They are organised as local or regional systems which face fundamental issues generated by increased demand, aged infrastructure and a slight decline in quality. Therefore an ample project is in progress, aiming to rehabilitate the existing water facilities and distribution networks and to build new ones. A newly built transmission conduit will interconnect the current systems into a regional one, with more flexibility and resilience. The project also envisages the implementation of surveillance and control methods to diminish the water loss and to increase energy efficiency. The same issues referring to water loss and energy consumption but more acute are faced by the irrigation water systems used in agriculture. The transition from large cultivated areas belonging to the state to small properties, after 1989, increased the water price and made difficult to use the existing huge irrigation systems. A national modernization project is going to improve irrigation which is vital for agriculture in Dobrogea. A particular focus lies on the water pumping stations that are the most critical energy consumers. A numerical simulation carried out with particular software is a beneficial way to analyse the hydraulic parameters and energy coefficients in each configuration or operation possibility of a pumping installation, allowing the engineers to make correct decisions. We present two case studies, one regarding a drinkable water system and the other an irrigation water pumping station. Elements of environmental impact and the challenges of the on-going water supply projects are addressed as well.

Keywords

Water resources Water supply Drinkable water distribution network Irrigation water supply Water pumping stations 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringOvidius UniversityConstantaRomania

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