Xinjiang and Central Asia’s Pivot of History for the Belt and Road Initiative
The re-emergence of Central Asia in world history imposes a new consideration of Xinjiang, the gate of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). For Xinjiang also, the Belt and Road Initiative constitutes China’s greatest project for the twenty-first century. Xinjiang is a pivot of the new history of Central Asia, and through it the new Silk Road is able to reach far away countries. The history, society, economy and geopolitics along the ancient Silk Road provide a perspective to understand the Belt and Road Initiative in Central Asia.
KeywordsDevelopment History Kazakhstan Mongol Overseas Chinese Pivot Uyghur Xinjiang
- Asia-Pacific Fund. n.d. Accessed February 11, 2019. https://www.pehub.com/2018/07/heitman-wraps-up-asia-pacific-fund-at-338-mln/#.
- Berlie, Jean A. 2004. Uyghurs in Xinjiang…. In Islam in China. Hui and Uyghurs Between Modernization and Sinicization. Bangkok: White Lotus.Google Scholar
- Biran, Michal. 2018. Mobility, Empire and Cross-Cultural Contacts in Mongol Eurasia (MONGOL), 135–154. Accessed March 26, 2019. http://medievalworlds.net/0xc1aa5576_0x003a16e8.pdf.
- BTI (Bertelsmann Sifting’s Transformation Index). 2018. Kazakhstan. Accessed August 4, 2018. https://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-reports/detail/itc/KAZ/.
- Clarke, Michael E. 2011. Xinjiang and China’s Rise in Central Asia—A History. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Clarke, Michael, and Colin Mackerras, eds. 2009. China, Xinjiang and Central Asia: History, Transition and Cross Border Interaction into the 21st Century. New York: Routledge. Accessed August 6, 2018. https://www.fairphone.com/en/2017/06/07/on-site-visit-to-cobalt-mines-in-congo-april-2017/.Google Scholar
- Fan, Lijun. 2016. Construction of Russia’s “Eurasian Union” and “Economic Corridor Among China Mongolia, and Russia”. In China’s Belt and Road Initiatives and Its Neighboring Diplomacy, ed. Zhang Jie. London: World Scientific.Google Scholar
- Fu, Xiu-Mei, Han-Xue Chen, and Zhen-Kai Xue. May 2018. Construction of the Belt and Road Trade Cooperation Network from the Multi-Distances Perspective. Sustainability 10 (5). Authors at Ocean University of China, Qingdao. Accessed August 11, 2018. http://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/10/5/1439/htm.
- Guthrie, Doug. 2009. China and Globalization: The Social, Economic and Political Transformation of Chinese Society. Rev. ed. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kalra, Prajakti. 2018. The Silk Road and the Political Economy of the Mongol Empire. London: Routledge. Accessed August 11, 2018. https://www.historyextra.com/period/medieval/the-brutal-brilliance-of-genghis-khan/. See also: “The Qing and Inner Asia: 1636–1800.” In The Cambridge History of Inner Asia: The Chinggisid Age, ed. Nicola Di Cosmo, Allen J. Frank, and Peter B. Golden, 333–362. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
- Kamalov, Ablet. 2009. Uyghurs in the Central Asian Republics: Past and Present. In China, Xinjiang and Central Asia: History, Transition and Cross Border Interaction into the 21st Century, ed. M. Clarke and C. Mackerras, 115–132. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kazakh-1. 2018. Accessed June 12, 2018. https://www.azernews.az/region/125507.html.
- Kazakh-2. 2018. Accessed August 10, 2018. https://freedomhouse.org/report/nations-transit/2018/kazakhstan.
- Kazakh-3. 2018. Special Energy Issue on Kazakhstan, Netherlands Embassy. January.Google Scholar
- Kazakh-4. n.d. Accessed August 15, 2018. https://frontera.net/news/nurly-zhol-kazakhstans-own-belt-road-initiative-takes-hold/.
- Kazakhstan. 2012. Accessed September 10, 2018. http://www.ucentralasia.org/Content/Downloads/UCA-IPPA-WP14-KazakhInvestmentCA-Eng.pdf.
- Lattimore, Owen. 1975. Pivot of Asia: Sinkiang and the Inner Asian Frontiers of China and Russia. Boston: Little, Brown & Company; 1st ed. 1950 (Pivot of Asia. New York: AMS Press, 1975).Google Scholar
- Li, Sheng, ed. 2005. Xinjiang of China: Its Past and Present. Urumqi: Xinjiang People’s Publishing House.Google Scholar
- McGrew, A. 2005. Globalization and Global Politics. In The Globalization of World Politics: An Introduction to International Relations, ed. J. Baylis and S. Smith, 19–40. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- McMillan, Ann. 2009. Xinjiang and Central Asia: Interdependency—Not Integration. In China, Xinjiang and Central Asia: History, Transition and Cross Border Interaction into the 21st Century, ed. Michael Clarke and Colin Mackerras, 94–114. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Park, June. 2012. Bargaining for More: China’s Initiative for Regional Free Trade in Asia. In China Joins Global Governance: Cooperation and Contentions, ed. Mingjiang Li, 137–154. London: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Reyhan, Dilnur (alias Polat). 2012. Uyghur Diaspora and Internet, 16 p. E-Diaspora Atlas. Accessed August 8, 2018. http://www.e-diasporas.fr/working-papers/Reyhan-Uyghurs-EN.pdf.
- Roberts, Sean R. 2004. A “Land of Borderlands”: Implications of Xinjiang’s Trans-Border Interactions. In Xinjiang’s China’s Muslim Borderland, ed. S. Frederick Starr, 216–237. London: M. E. Starr.Google Scholar
- Sadovskaya, Yelena Y. 2018. Ethnically Diverse Diasporas and Migrations from China to Central Asia in the 21st Century: Origin and Contemporary Challenges with Special Reference to Kazakhstan. In China’s Rise and the Chinese Overseas, ed. B.P. Wong and Tan Chee-Beng, 154–183. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Schwarz, G. Henry. 1992. An Uyghur-English Dictionary. Washington: The Center for East Asian Studies, Western Washington University, 1st ed. 1982. Accessed July 31, 2018. https://cedar.wwu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1029&context=easpress.
- Sinor, Denis, ed. 1990. The Cambridge History of Early Inner Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Toops, Stanley W. 2004. The Demography of Xinjiang. In Xinjiang’s China’s Muslim Borderland, ed. Frederick Starr, 241–263. London: M. E. Starr.Google Scholar
- Turkmenistan’s Gas. 2017. Accessed June 12, 2018. https://www.reuters.com/article/us-china-gas-turkmenistan/turkmen-november-gas-supplies-to-china-slide-versus-october-amid-winter-supply-crunch-customs-data-idUSKBN1EK0I9.
- Tyler, Christian. 2004. Wild West China: The Taming of Xinjiang. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
- Wiemer, Calla. 2004. The Economy of Xinjiang. In Xinjiang’s China’s Muslim Borderland, ed. S. Frederick Starr, 163–189. London: M. E. Starr.Google Scholar
- Yaldiz, Marianne. 2005. Chinese Central Asia (Xinjiang): Its Peoples and Its Culture. In Turks: A Journey of a Thousand Years (600–1600), ed. David J. Roxburgh, 42–46. Leiden: Brill.Google Scholar
- Younghusband, Francis. 1896. The Heart of the Continent. Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar