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Toxicologic Hazards of Solvents, Gases, Vapors, and Other Chemicals

  • PK Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with toxicologic hazards of solvents (alcohols, glycols, and petroleum), toxic gases and vapors (carbon monoxide, hydrogen sulfide, oxides of nitrogen, cyanide gas, gaseous ammonia, smoke inhalation, phosphine gas, etc.), organic compounds, brominated flame retardants, perfluorinated agents, persistent halogenated aromatic products, coat tar products, pentachlorophenols, and household products (chlorine bleaches, detergents, soaps and shampoos, etc.) In animals, among these chemicals, household chemicals (e.g., products containing alcohols, bleaches, or corrosives) found in the home represent a risk of toxicosis if companion animals are exposed to concentrates or undiluted products, but casual exposure to areas in which these compounds have been used appropriately rarely causes any serious problems. However, hydrogen sulfide (H2S; “sewer gas,” “swamp gas,” “sour gas,” and “stink damp”) is most commonly encountered as a by-product of the decomposition of sulfur-containing organic material. In general, the toxic effects of multiple solvents are additive; solvents may also interact synergistically or antagonistically.

Keywords

Toxic solvents Vapors Toxic gases Household products Alcohol toxicity Inhalants Question and answer bank Multiple choice questions 

Further Reading

  1. Cope R (2018) Toxic gases and vapors. In: Gupta RC (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, 3rd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp 629–646CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Coppock RW, Christian RG (2018) Petroleum. In: Gupta RC (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, 3rd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp 658–674Google Scholar
  3. Curtis D, Klaassen CD, Watkins JB III (2015) Casarett & Doull’s essentials of toxicology, 3rd edn. McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  4. Gupta PK (2016) Fundamental in toxicology: essential concepts and applications in toxicology. Elsevier /BSP, (Chapter 20)Google Scholar
  5. Gupta PK (2018) Illustrative toxicology, 1st edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • PK Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology Consulting Group, Academy of Sciences for Animal WelfareBareillyIndia

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