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Toxic Effects of Pesticides and Agrochemicals

  • PK Gupta
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter deals with the toxic effects of different pesticides such as organochlorine insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides, carbamate insecticides, pyrethroids, formamidines, nicotinamides, botanical insecticides, fumigants, fungicides, herbicides, rodenticides, and various fertilizers used by the farmers. Pesticides and agricultural chemicals are among the most widely used group of chemicals in modern world and have provided immense benefits to mankind by controlling pests, significantly enhancing food production, and improving health. However, their massive and indiscriminate use in crop protection, food preservation, and insect pest control has led to acute or chronic poisoning incidents in human, domestic animals, and wildlife and resulted in widespread ecological adverse effects. Survey indicates that today herbicides and insecticides (organophosphates [OPs] and carbamates [CMs]) are commonly used in agriculture and industry and around homes/gardens throughout the world. Small animals often encounter poisoning with these insecticides via malicious activity or accidental exposure, while livestock may ingest freshly sprayed crop or contaminated feed. Among other pesticides, rodenticide (warfarin), and fumigant (aluminum phosphide) are the common causes of poisoning malicious/suicide poisonings because of their easy availability.

Keywords

Pesticides Agrochemicals Organochlorine (OC) insecticides Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides Carbamate (CM) insecticides Pyrethroids Formamidines Nicotinamides Botanical insecticides Question and answer bank Multiple choice questions 

Further Reading

  1. Curtis D, Klaassen CD, Watkins JB III (eds) (2015) Casarett & doull’s essentials of toxicology, 3rd edn. McGraw-HillGoogle Scholar
  2. Gupta PK (2010) Epidemiology of anticholinesterase pesticides: India. In: Satoh T, Gupta RC (eds) Anticholinesterase pesticides: metabolism, neurotoxicity, and epidemiology. John Wiley & Sons, pp 417–431Google Scholar
  3. Gupta PK (2010) Pesticides. In: Gupta PK (ed) Modern toxicology: the adverse effects of xenobiotics, vol 2, 2nd reprint. PharmaMed Press, Hyderabad, pp 1–60Google Scholar
  4. Gupta PK (2017) Herbicides and fungicides. In: Gupta RC (ed) Reproductive and developmental toxicology, 2nd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp 657–680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gupta PK (2018) Toxicity of herbicides. In: Gupta RC (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, 3rd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp 553–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gupta PK (2018) Herbicides and fungicides. In: Gupta RC (ed) Biomarkers in toxicology, 3rd edn. Elsevier, pp 409–432Google Scholar
  7. Gupta PK (2018) Toxicity of fungicides. In: Gupta RC (ed) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, 3rd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego, pp 569–582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta PK (2018) Illustrative toxicology, 1st edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  9. Gupta Ramesh C (2018) Veterinary toxicology: basic and clinical principles, 3rd edn. Academic Press/Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • PK Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology Consulting Group, Academy of Sciences for Animal WelfareBareillyIndia

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