Mechanism of Toxicity

  • PK Gupta


This chapter deals with various aspects of mechanism of action of chemical or physical agents, their interaction with living organisms, and how they trigger perturbations in cell function and/or structure or may initiate repair mechanisms at the molecular, cellular, and/or tissue levels including necrosis and apoptosis of different xenobiotics. This process is completely organized whereby individual cells break into small fragments that are phagocytosed by adjacent cells or macrophages without producing an inflammatory response. Knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity of a substance enhances the ability to prevent toxicity and design more desirable chemicals; it constitutes the basis for therapy upon overexposure and frequently enables a further understanding of fundamental biological processes.


Mechanism of action Mechanism of toxicity Mode of action Necrosis Apoptosis Question and answer bank 

Further Reading

  1. Boelsterli Urs A (ed) (2007) Mechanistic toxicology. In: The molecular basis of how chemicals disrupt biological targets, 2nd edn. CRC Press/Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
  2. Gregus Z (2015) Mechanisms of toxicity. In: Klaassen CD, Watkins JB III (eds) Casarett & Doull’s essentials of toxicology, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, pp 21–48Google Scholar
  3. Gupta PK (2018) Illustrative toxicology, 1st edn. Elsevier, San DiegoGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • PK Gupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology Consulting Group, Academy of Sciences for Animal WelfareBareillyIndia

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