Ozone Risk for Douro Vineyards in Present and Future Climates
Tropospheric ozone (O3) can damage vegetation, affecting productivity and quality of the crops. Vines, in particular, have an intermediate sensitivity to ozone. Moreover, an increase of ozone levels is foreseen under climate change scenarios. The Douro Demarcated Region is one of the most productive wine areas in Portugal; thus studying the ozone deposition over this region and assessing its potential effects is a nowadays concern. This work aims to evaluate the risk of Douro vineyards exposure to ozone in present and future climates. The chemical transport model CHIMERE, with a spatial resolution of 1 km2, fed by meteorological data from the WRF model, was applied for the years 2003–2005 (present climate), for 2049 and 2064 (mid-term future) and for 2096 and 2097 (long-term future). The assessment of the potential damage in terms of productivity and quality was done through the analysis of ozone deposition and the application of concentration-response functions. The exposure indicator AOT40 (accumulated concentration of ozone above 40 ppb) for the period established in the Air Quality Framework Directive 2008/50/CE was also estimated. The model results show, for present and future climate, that the AOT40 levels in the entire Douro region are above the target value for the protection of vegetation. The results of the exposure-response functions suggest that the tropospheric ozone levels in the future, in the region, would influence the quality and productivity of the wine.
The authors wish to thank the financial support of FEDER through the COMPETE Program and the national funds from FCT—Science and Technology Portuguese Foundation for financing the DOUROZONE project (PTDC/AAG-MAA/3335/2014; POCI-01-0145-FEDER-016778). Thanks are also due, for the financial support to CESAM (UID/AMB/50017), to FCT/MEC through national funds, and the co-funding by the FEDER, within the PT2020 Partnership Agreement and Compete 2020.
- 1.A. Ascenso, Assessing Douro vineyards exposure to tropospheric ozone. Master thesis, University of Aveiro, 82 p, 2017Google Scholar
- 2.J. Klingberg, M. Engardt, J. Uddling, P.E. Karlsson, H. Pleijel, (2011), Ozone risk for vegetation in the future climate of Europe based on stomatal ozone uptake calculations. Tellus A 63(1), 174–187Google Scholar
- 6.U.S. EPA, Air quality criteria for ozone and related photochemical oxidants volume I of III (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 2006), 821 pGoogle Scholar