China and Resource (Oil) Diplomacy in Africa
Africa is the second largest continent in the world, with 30 million square kilometers (11.6 million miles) of land, population 1.2 billion, and contains a vast quantity of natural resources. This trait, together with the continent’s relatively low population density and small manufacturing sector, has made Africa a key target for Chinese imports. Africa ranks first or second in abundance globally, for the following minerals—bauxite, cobalt, diamonds, phosphate rocks, platinum group metals, coltan, vermiculite, and zirconium.1 And many other minerals are also present in large quantities, such as gold, copper, coal, petroleum, et cetera. This chapter offers an overview of the Sino-African oil relationship to provide a foundation for future analyses.
Many African countries are mostly dependent on exports of minerals. Mineral fuels such as coal and petroleum account for more than ninety percent of export earnings for Algeria, Equatorial Guinea, Libya, and Nigeria.2Various...