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Implications of Lateral or Horizontal Gene Transfer from Bacteria to the Human Gastrointestinal System for Cancer Development and Treatment

  • A. G. Abril
  • P. G. Lanzi
  • V. NotarioEmail author
Chapter

Abstract

The ultimate consequence of horizontal, or lateral, gene transfer, as it is usually understood, is the transient or permanent acquisition by the recipient cell(s) of new, positive or negative, functional characteristics by virtue of the incorporation of the DNA from the donor into their own genome. In reality, it is simply the manifestation of a novel gene expression repertoire(s). It has been recognized for some time that gene expression changes in human cells were primarily the result of structural alterations of their own DNA (mutations, deletions, amplification, or major rearrangements). At present, despite some degree of controversy, it is becoming an increasingly accepted notion that gene expression changes in human cells may be brought about also by their acquisition of exogenous DNA from microorganisms, particularly bacteria, present in the human microbiome. Recent published analyses of information deposited in publicly available data bases of human normal and tumor genome sequences reported a high frequency of detection of bacterial DNA integrated in the human DNA, thus providing solid evidence in support for bacteria-to-human lateral gene transfer. In addition, and most importantly, these studies also showed a much more frequent presence of bacterial DNA in human cancer samples (e.g., acute myeloid leukemia, gastric cancers) than in the DNA samples from healthy individuals, raising the possibility that the bacterial sequences might be directly or indirectly involved in the development of cancer, either by encoding protein/enzyme products with pro-carcinogenic activity or by causing epigenetic alterations that ultimately could lead to genomic instability in the host cells and, later, to carcinogenic progression. This chapter will examine the current status and landmark developments in this still growing and highly innovative research field, focusing on the role of resident bacteria in the onset and/or progression of human gastrointestinal malignancies. We will also discuss the exciting possibility of exploiting bacteria-to-human lateral gene transfer to deliver anticancer therapeutic tools to human tumors.

Keywords

Gene transfer Human microbiota Gene expression Gastrointestinal malignancies Anti-cancer therapeutics 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of MicrobiologyUniversity of Santiago de CompostelaSantiago de CompostelaSpain
  2. 2.Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer CenterGeorgetown UniversityWashington, DCUSA

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