When Nation and State Are at Odds

  • Kjetil DuvoldEmail author
  • Sten Berglund
  • Joakim Ekman


This chapter is about nation building under exceptional circumstances. Covering four different but related topics, the inquiry begins by exploring the thickness of ethnic identity markers. Second, it focuses on language laws, citizenship legislation and naturalisation procedures, with an emphasis on non-citizens. Third, it revolves around conflict and integration: the ethnic divide has conflict potential, but the Baltic countries do not stand out as particularly conflict ridden. The fourth section focuses on Soviet nostalgia. Half a century of Soviet rule did not pass by unnoticed. While many people want to dissociate themselves from this era, quite a few have fond memories of Soviet rule. In this sense, the Baltic peoples may be described as caught between past and present. Moreover, this dichotomy has a distinct ethnic edge. In the concluding section, the prospects for national integration in the region are discussed.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dalarna UniversityFalunSweden
  2. 2.Örebro UniversityÖrebroSweden
  3. 3.Södertörn UniversityStockholmSweden

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