Translation Methods and Factors for Its Advancement
This chapter discusses the Age of Translation, dealing with a general overview of the translation movement. We address some of the opinions of researchers on the division of roles played by the translation movement from its inception in the Umayyad era until the end of about the middle of the fourth/tenth century in addition to the adopted division of the roles of this movement during the period in four eras in the eastern region—the first, the role of translation in the Umayyad era; the second era pertaining to translation in the time of the Caliphs al-Manṣūr and al-Rashı̄d; the third era of translation in the time of al-Ma’mūn; and the last era of translation after the al-Ma’mūn era. In this regard, we review the most prominent features of the translation movement in these four roles, and the most famous translators who emerged in each role, and the differences between them in terms of the results from the translation movement at each stage of its development, and then, talk about translation methods. We conclude this chapter by talking about the most important factors of the boom in the translation movement.