Advertisement

Phytoremediation of Lead: A Review

  • Bhagawatilal Jagetiya
  • Sandeep Kumar
Chapter
Part of the Radionuclides and Heavy Metals in the Environment book series (RHME)

Abstract

Environmental pollution is the most important problem faced by modern civilization among all other concerns. Metals are normal components of the crust of Earth. Due to erosion of rocks, volcanic activity and many more natural and anthropogenic activities metals and other contaminants are discharged and found in almost all environmental compartments and strata. Among these heavy metals, lead is the most considerable toxic pollutant which is coming from diverse sources into the surrounding environment and consequently goes into the various components of the food chain. Industrialisation, urbanization, technological spreading out, increased use of fossil fuel, chemical fertilizer and pesticide use, mining and smelting and inappropriate waste management practices stay put the foremost reasons of extremely high levels of toxic quantities of lead in the environment. Mined ores or recycled scrap metal and batteries are the sources that fulfil the industrial lead requirement. Lead mining-smelting, industrial processes, batteries, colour-paints, E-wastes, thermal power plants, ceramics, and bangle manufacturing are the important point sources of lead. Huge quantities of lead in the air are from combustion of leaded fuel. The key reason for prolonged persistence of lead in the environment is the non-biodegradable character of this metal. This has led to manifold increased levels of lead in the environment and biological systems. Lead has no known biological requirement and is highly toxic even at low concentrations. Lead is looked upon as a strong occupational toxin and its toxicological manifestations are very well documented. Lead toxicity and poisoning has been recognized as a major community health threat all around in developing countries. Lead moves into the ecosystem and creates toxic effects on the microorganism as well as on all living organisms including plants. Conventional or traditional techniques of heavy metal quenching and putting out of contaminants from the contaminated sites have jeopardy to leave go of looming heavy metals in the environment and these are costlier as well as unsafe additionally. Use of microbes and green plants for clean-up purposes is therefore, a promising solution for onslaught of heavy metal polluted sites in view of the fact that they include sustainable ways of repairing and re-establishing the natural status of soil and environment. The future outlook of phytoremediation depends on ongoing research and development. The science of phytoremediation has to go through numerous technical obstacles and developmental stages and better outcomes can be achieved by learning and knowing more and more about the variety of biological processes participating in phytoremediation programmes. For successful future of phytoremediation a number of attempts yet to be require with multidisciplinary approach. This review comprehensively presents the background, concepts, technical details, types, strategies, merits and demerits, and upcoming path for the phytoremediation of lead pollution.

Keywords

Heavy metals Lead pollution Ecotoxicology Bioremediation Phytoremediation 

References

  1. Abhilash PC, Jamil S, Singh N (2009) Transgenic plants for enhanced biodegradation and phytoremediation of organic xenobiotics. Biotechnol Adv 27:474–488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Addo MA, Darko EO, Gordon C, Nyarko BJB, Gbadago JK, Nyarko E, Affum HA, Botwe BO (2012) Evaluation of heavy metals contamination of soil and vegetable in the vicinity of a cement factory in the Volta Region, Ghana. Int J Sci Tech 2:40–50Google Scholar
  3. Adesodun JK, Atayese MO, Agbaje TA, Osadiaye BA, Mafe OF, Soretire AA (2010) Phytoremediation potentials of sunflowers (Tithonia diversifolia and Helianthus annuus) for metals in soils contaminated with zinc and lead nitrates. Water Air Soil Pollut 207:195–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adriano DC (2001) Trace elements in terrestrial environments: biogeochemistry, bioavailability and risks of metals. Springer, New York, pp 223–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aery NC, Sarkar S, Jagetiya B, Jain GS (1994) Cadmium-zinc tolerance in soybean and fenugreek. J Ecotoxicol Environ Monit 4:39–44Google Scholar
  6. Aery NC, Jagetiya B (1997) Relative toxicity of cadmium, lead and zinc on barley. Commun Soil Sci Plant Anal 28:949–960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2005) Toxicological profile for lead. (Draft for Public Comment). Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, pp 43–59.Google Scholar
  8. Ahamed M, Siddiqui MKJ (2007) Environmental lead toxicity and nutritional factors. Clin Nutr 26:400–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ahamed M, Verma S, Kumar A, Siddiqui MK (2005) Environmental exposure to lead and its correlation with biochemical indices in children. Sci Total Environ 346:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ajavan KV, Selvaraju M, Thirugnanamoorthy K (2011) Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents. Pak J Biol Sci 14:805–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Akpor OB, Muchie M (2011) Environmental and public health implications of wastewater quality. Afr J Biotechnol 10:2379–2387Google Scholar
  12. Ali A, Guo D, Mahara A, Ping W, Wahid F, Shen F, Li R, Zhang Z (2017) Phytoextraction and the economic perspective of phytomining of heavy metals. Solid Earth 75:1–40Google Scholar
  13. Ali EH, Hashem M (2007) Removal efficiency of the heavy metals Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by Saprolegnia delica and Trichoderma viride at different pH values and temperature degrees. Mycobiology 35:135–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ali H, Naseer M, Sajad MA (2012) Phytoremediation of heavy metals by Trifolium alexandrinum. Int J Env Sci 2:1459–1469Google Scholar
  15. Ali H, Khan E, Sajad MA (2013) Phytoremediation of heavy metals-concepts and applications. Chemosphere 91:869–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Alkorta I, Hernández-Allica J, Becerril JM, Amezaga I, Albizu I, Garbisu C (2004) Recent findings on the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with environmentally toxic heavy metals and metalloids such as zinc, cadmium, lead, and arsenic. Rev Environ Sci Biotechnol 3:71–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Al-Masri MS, Mukalallati H, Al-Hamwi A (2014) Transfer factors of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po from NORM-contaminated oilfield soil to some Atriplex species, Alfalfa and Bermuda grass. Radioprotection 49:27–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Andra SS, Datta R, Sarkar D, Makris KC, Mullens CP, Sahi SV, Bach SB (2009) Induction of lead-binding phytochelatins in vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides L.). J Environ Qual 38:868–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Antiochia R, Campanella L, Ghezzi P, Movassaghi K (2007) The use of vetiver for remediation of heavy metal soil contamination. Anal Bioanal Chem 388:947–956CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Arazi T, Sunkar R, Kaplan B, Fromm H (1999) A tobacco plasma membrane calmodulin-binding transporter confers Ni2+ tolerance and Pb2+ hypersensitivity in transgenic plants. Plant J 20:171–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Arora K, Sharma S, Monti A (2015) Bio-remediation of Pb and Cd polluted soils by switchgrass: a case study in India. Int J Phytoremediation 17:285–321Google Scholar
  22. Athalye VV, Mistry KB (1972) Uptake and distribution of polonium-210 and lead-210 in tobacco plants. Radiat Bot 12:421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Aung WL, Aye KN, Hlaing NN (2012) Biosorption of lead (Pb2+) by using Chlorella vul- garis. In: Proceedings of International Conference on Chemical Engineering and its Applications. Bangkok, ThailandGoogle Scholar
  24. Azizi SN, Colagar AH, Hafeziyan SM (2012) Removal of Cd (II) from aquatic system using Oscillatoria sp. biosorbent. Scient World J 2012:347053Google Scholar
  25. Baker AJM, Reeves RD, McGrath SP (1991) In situ decontamination of heavy metal polluted soils using crops of metal-accumulating plants-A feasibility study. In: Hinchee RE, Olfenbuttel RF (eds) In situ bioreclamation: applications and investigations for hydrocarbon and contaminated sites remediation. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, pp 600–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Balsberg-Påhlsson AM (1989) Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, cd, Pb) to vascular plants. A literature review. Water Air Soil Pollut 47:287–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Basha SA, Rajaganesh K (2014) Microbial bioremediation of heavy metals from textile industry dye effluents using isolated bacterial strains. Int J Curr Microbiol App Sci 3:785–794Google Scholar
  28. Bech J, Duran P, Roca N, Poma W, Sánchez I, Barceló J, Boluda R, Roca-Pérez L, Poschenrieder C (2012) Shoot accumulation of several trace elements in native plant species from contaminated soils in the Peruvian Andes. J Geochem Explor 113:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Beolchini F (2006) Ionic strength effect on copper biosorption by Sphaerotilus natans: equilibrium study and dynamic modeling in membrane reactor. Water Res 40:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Bhargava A, Srivastava S (2014) Transgenic approaches for phytoextraction of heavy metals. In: Ahmad P, Wani MR, Azooz MM, Tran LSP (eds) Improvement of crops in the era of climatic changes. Springer, New York, pp 57–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Bisessar S (1981) Effect of heavy metals on microorganisms in soils near a secondary lead smelter. Water Air Soil Pollut 17:305–308Google Scholar
  32. Brennan MA, Shelley ML (1999) A model of the uptake, translocation, and accumulation of lead (Pb) by maize for the purpose of phytoextraction. Ecol Eng 12:271–297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Brooks RR, Robinson BH (1998) The potential use of hyperaccumulators and other plants in phytomining. In: Brooks RR (ed) Plants that hyperaccumulate heavy metals: their role in phytoremediation, microbiology, archaeology, mineral exploration and phytomining. CAB International, Wallingford, UK, pp 327–356Google Scholar
  34. Chakraborty P, Babu PVR, Sarma VV (2012) A study of lead and cadmium speciation in some estuarine and coastal sediment. Chem Geol 294-295:217–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Chakraborty S, Chakraborty P, Nath BN (2015) Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India. Mar Pollut Bull 97:36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Chandrasekhar C, Ray JG (2019) Lead accumulation, growth responses and biochemical changes of three plant species exposed to soil amended with different concentrations of lead nitrate. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 171:26–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Chapman PM (2002) Integrating toxicology and ecology: putting the “eco” into ecotoxicology. Mar Pollut Bull 44:7–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Chehregani A, Malayeri BE (2007) Removal of heavy metals by native accumulator plants. Int J Agric Bio 9:462–465Google Scholar
  39. Chehregani A, Noori M, Yazdi HL (2009) Phytoremediation of heavy-metal-polluted soils: Screening for new accumulator plants in Angouran mine (Iran) and evaluation of removal ability. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1349–1353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Chen YX, Lin Q, Luo YM, He YF, Zhen SJ, Yu YL, Tian GM, Wong MH (2003) The role of citric acid on the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil. Chemosphere 50(6):807–811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chen Y, Li X, Shen Z (2004) Leaching and uptake of heavy metals by ten different species of plants during an EDTA-assisted phytoextraction process. Chemosphere 57:187–196Google Scholar
  42. Chen SB, Zhu YG, Ma YB, McKay G (2006) Effect of bone char application on Pb bioavailability in a Pb-contaminated soil. Environ Pollut 139:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Choi SB, Yun YS (2004) Lead bio-sorption by waste biomass of Corynebacterium glutamicum generated from lysine fermentation process. Biotechnol Lett 26:331–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Chou FI, Chung HP, Teng SP, Sheu ST (2005) Screening plant species native to Taiwan for remediation of 137Cs-contaminated soil and the effects of K addition and soil amendment on the transfer of 137Cs from soil to plants. J Environ Radioact 80:175–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Cohen AJ, Roe FJC (1991) Review of lead toxicology relevant to the safety assessment of lead acetate as a hair colouring. Food Chem Toxicol 29:485–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Corneanu M, Gabriel CC, Crăciun C, Tripon S (2014) Phytoremediation of some heavy metals and radionuclides from a polluted area located on the middle Jiu river. Case study: Typha latifolia L. Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia Studii Şi Comunicări Ştiinţele Naturii Tom 30:1454–6924Google Scholar
  47. D’Souza TJ, Mistry KB (1970) Comparative uptake of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 by plants. Radiat Bot 10:293–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Dalvi AA, Bhalerao SA (2013) Response of plants towards heavy metal toxicity: an overview of avoidance, tolerance and uptake mechanism. Ann Plant Sci 2:3262–3268Google Scholar
  49. Damodaran D, Suresh G, Mohan RB (2011) Bioremediation of soil by removing heavy metals using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. IACSIT Press, SingaporeGoogle Scholar
  50. Danh LT, Truong P, Mammucari R, Tran T, Foster N (2009) Vetiver grass, Vetiveria zizanioides: a choice plant for phytoremediation of heavy metals and organic wastes. Int J Phytorem 11:664–691Google Scholar
  51. Danh LT, Truong P, Mammucari R, Pu Y, Foster NR (2012) Phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals, metalloids, and radioactive materials using vetiver grass, Chrysopogon zizanioides. In: Anjum NA, Pereira ME, Ahmad I, Duarte AC, Umar S, Khan N (eds) Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contamination. CRC Press, pp 278–303Google Scholar
  52. Degraeve N (1981) Carcinogenic, teratogenic and mutagenic effects of cadmium. Mutat Res 86:115–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Deng L, Su Y, Su H, Wang X, Zhu X (2007) Sorption and desorption of lead (II) from wastewater by green algae Cladophora fascicularis. J Hazard Mater 143:220–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Dixit R (2015) Bioremediation of heavy metals from soil and aquatic environment: an overview of principles and criteria of fundamental processes. Sustainability 7:2189–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Djingova R, Kuleff I (2000) Instrumental techniques for trace analysis. In: Markert B, Friese K (eds) Trace elements: their distribution and effects in the environment. Elsevier, pp 137–185Google Scholar
  56. Dogan M, Karatasb M, Aasim M (2018) Cadmium and lead bioaccumulation potentials of an aquatic macrophyte Ceratophyllum demersum L.: A laboratory study. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 148:431–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Doty SL (2008) Enhancing phytoremediation through the use of transgenics and entophytes. New Phytol 179:318–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Dwivedi S (2012) Bioremediation of heavy metal by algae: current and future perspective. J Adv Lab Res Biol:195–199Google Scholar
  59. Dwivedi S, Mishra A, Saini D (2012) Removal of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from wastewater. Int J Sci Res 1:181–185Google Scholar
  60. Eapen S, Singh S, Thorat V, Kaushik CP, Raj K, D’Souza SF (2006) Phytoremediation of radiostrontium (90Sr) and radiocesium (137Cs) using giant milky weed (Calotropis gigantea R. Br.) plants. Chemosphere 65:2071–2073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Edris G, Alhamed Y, Alzahrani A (2012) Cadmium and lead biosorption by Chlorella vulgaris. In: IWTA, 16th International Water Technical Conference. Istanbul, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  62. Epelde L, Mijangos I, Becerril JM, Garbisu C (2009) Soil microbial community as bioindicator of the recovery of soil functioning derived from metal phytoextraction with sorghum. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1788–1794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Erakhrumen AA (2007) Phytoremediation: an environmentally sound technology for pollution prevention, control and remediation in developing countries. Educ Res Rev 2:151–156Google Scholar
  64. Evangelou MWH, Ebel M, Schaeffer A (2007) Chelate assisted phytoextraction of heavy metals from soil: effect, mechanism, toxicity and fate of chelating agents. Chemosphere 68:989–1003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Fanna AG, Yadji G, Abdourahmane TDB, Zakaria OI, Karimou AJM (2018) Phytoextraction of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn by Ricinus communis. Environ Wat Sci Pub Health Ter Int J 2:56–62Google Scholar
  66. Flora G, Gupta D, Tiwari A (2012) Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates. Interdis Toxicol 5:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Fu F, Wang Q (2011) Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review. J Environ Manage 92:407–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Fukuda S, Iwamoto K, Atsumi M, Yokoyama A, Nakayama T, Ishida KI, Inouhe I, Shiraiwa Y (2014) Current status and future control of cesium contamination in plants and algae in Fukushima Global searches for microalgae and aquatic plants that can eliminate radioactive cesium, iodine and strontium from the radio-polluted aquatic environment: a bioremediation strategy. J Plant Res 127:79–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Fulekar MH, Singh A, Bhaduri AM (2009) Genetic engineering strategies for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metals. Afr J Biotechnol 8:529–535Google Scholar
  70. Fulghum JE, Bryant SR, Linton RW, Grlffls DP (1988) Discrimination between adsorption and coprecipitation in aquatic particle standards by surface analysis techniques: lead distributions in calcium carbonates. Environ Sci Technol 22:463–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Garau G, Castaldi P, Santona L, Deiana P, Melis P (2007) Influence of red mud, zeolite and lime on heavy metal immobilization, culturable heterotrophic microbial populations and enzyme activities in a contaminated soil. Geoderma 142:47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Garbisu C, Alkorta I (2003) Basic concepts on heavy metal soil bioremediation. Eur J Miner Process Environ Prot 3:58–66Google Scholar
  73. Ghrefat H, Yusuf N (2006) Assessing Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and Cd pollution in bottom sediments of Wadi Al-Arab Dam, Jordan. Chemosphere 65:2114–2121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Gisbert C, Ros R, de Haro A, Walker DJ, Bernal MP, Serrano R, Navarro-Avino J (2003) A plant genetically modified that accumulates Pb is especially promising for phytoremediation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 303:440–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Guilizzoni P (1991) The role of heavy metals and toxic materials in the physiological ecology of submersed macrophytes. Aquat Bot 41:87–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Gulati K, Banerjee B, Lall SB, Ray A (2010) Effects of diesel exhaust, heavy metals and pesticides on various organ systems: possible mechanisms and strategies for prevention and treatment. Indian J Exp Biol 48:710–721Google Scholar
  77. Gupta DK, Nicoloso FT, Schetinger MR, Rossato LV, Pereira LB, Castro GY, Srivastava S, Tripathi RD (2009) Antioxidant defense mechanism in hydroponically grown Zea mays seedlings under moderate lead stress. J Hazard Mater 172:479–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Gupta DK, Huang HG, Yang XE, Razafindrabe BH, Inouhe M (2010) The detoxification of lead in Sedum alfredii H. is not related to phytochelatins but the glutathione. J Hazard Mater 177:437–444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Gupta DK, Huang HG, Corpas FJ (2013a) Lead tolerance in plants: strategies for phytoremediation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:2150–2161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Gupta DK, Huang HG, Nicoloso FT, Schetinger MR, Farias JG, Li TQ, Razafindrabe BH, Aryal N, Inouhe M (2013b) Effect of Hg, As and Pb on biomass production, photosynthetic rate, nutrients uptake and phytochelatin induction in Pfaffia glomerata. Ecotoxicology 22:1403–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ha NT, Sakakibara M, Sano S (2011) Accumulation of Indium and other heavy metals by Eleocharis acicularis: an option for phytoremediation and phytomining. Bioresour Technol 102:2228–2234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Ham GJ, Wilkins BT, Ewers LW (2001) 210Pb, 210Po, 226Ra, U and Th in arable crops and ovine liver: variations in concentrations in the United Kingdom and resultant doses. Radiat Prot Dosimetry 93:151–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. He LY, Chen ZJ, Ren GD, Zhang YF, Qian M, Sheng XF (2009) Increased cadmium and lead uptake of a cadmium hyperaccumulator tomato by cadmium-resistant bacteria. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 72:1343–1348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Holan ZR, Volesky B (1994) Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae. Biotechnol Bioeng 43:1001–1009CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Hooda PS, Lloway BLA (1993) Effects of time and temperature on the bioavailability of Cd and Pb from sludge-amended soils. J Soil Sci 44:97–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Hovmand MF, Nielsen SP, Johnsen I (2009) Root uptake of lead by Norway spruce grown on 210Pb spiked soils. Environ Pollut 157:404–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Hseu ZY, Jien SH, Wang SH, Deng HW (2013) Using EDDS and NTA for enhanced phytoextraction of Cd by water spinach. J Environ Manage 117:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Huang H, Gupta DK, Tian S, Yang XE, Li T (2011) Lead tolerance and physiological adaptation mechanism in roots of accumulating and non-accumulating ecotypes of Sedum alfredii. Environ Sci Pollut Res 19:1640–1651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Huang JW, Cunningham SD (1996) Lead phytoextraction: species variation in lead uptake and translocation. New Phytol 13:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Inouhe M, Sakuma Y, Chatterjee S, Datta S, Jagetiya B, Voronina AV, Walther C, Gupta DK (2015) General roles of phytochelatins and other peptides in plant defense mechanisms against oxidative stress/primary and secondary damages induced by heavy metals. In: Gupta DK, Palma JM, Corpas FJ (eds) Reactive oxygen species and oxidative damage in plants. Springer, Cham, pp 1–22Google Scholar
  91. Jagetiya B, Aery NC (1994) Effect of low and toxic levels of nickel on seed germination and early seedling growth of moong. Bionature 14:57–61Google Scholar
  92. Jagetiya B, Bhatt K (2005) Nickel induced biochemical and physiological alterations in barley. Bionature 25:75–81Google Scholar
  93. Jagetiya B, Purohit P (2006) Effect of different uranium tailing concentrations on certain growth and biochemical parameters in sunflower. Biologia 61:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Jagetiya B, Bhatt K (2007) Relative toxicity of various nickel species on seed germination and early seedling growth of Vigna unguiculata L. Asian J Bio Sci 2:11–17Google Scholar
  95. Jagetiya B, Sharma A (2009) Phytoremediation of radioactive pollution: present status and future. Ind J Bot Res 5:45–78Google Scholar
  96. Jagetiya B, Sharma A (2013) Optimization of chelators to enhance uranium uptake from tailings for phytoremediation. Chemosphere 91:692–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Jagetiya B, Porwal SR (2019) Exploration of floral diversity of polluted habitats around Bhilwara city for phytoremediation. Plant Arch 19:403–406Google Scholar
  98. Jagetiya B, Bhatt K, Kaur MJ (2007) Activity of certain enzymes and growth as affected by Nickel. Ind J Bot Res 3:103–114Google Scholar
  99. Jagetiya B, Soni A, Kothari S, Khatik U (2011) Bioremediation: an ecological solution to textile effluents. Asian J Bio Sci 6:248–257Google Scholar
  100. Jagetiya B, Purohit P, Kothari S, Pareek P (2012) Influence of various concentrations of uranium mining waste on certain growth and biochemical parameters in gram. Int J Plant Sci 7:79–84Google Scholar
  101. Jagetiya B, Soni A, Yadav S (2013) Effect of nickel on plant water relations and growth in green gram. Indian J Plant Physiol 18:372–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Jagetiya B, Sharma A, Soni A and Khatik UK (2014) Phytoremediation of radionuclides: A report on the state of the art. In: Gupta DK, Walther C (eds) Radionuclide contamination and remediation through plants. Springer, Champ, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  103. Jamil S, Abhilash PC, Singh N, Sharma PN (2009) Jatropha curcas: a potential crop for phytoremediation of coal fly-ash. J Hazard Mater 172:269–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Johnson CE, Siccama TG, Driscoll CT, Likens GE, Moeller RE (1995) Changes in lead biogeochemistry in response to decreasing atmospheric inputs. Ecol Appl 5:813–822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Jones B, Turki A (1997) Distribution and speciation of heavy metals in surficial sediments from the Tees estuary, North-east England. Mar Pollut Bull 34:768–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Joshi PK, Swarup A, Maheshwari S, Kumar R, Singh N (2011) Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources. Ind J Microbiol 51:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Juberg DR, Kleiman CF, Kwon SC (1997) Position paper of the American council on science and health: lead and human health. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 38:162–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Juwarkar AA, Nair A, Dubey KV, Singh SK, Devotta S (2007) Biosurfactant technology for remediation of cadmium and lead contaminated soils. Chemosphere 68:1996–2002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Kapoor A, Viraraghavan T, Cullimore DR (1999) Removal of heavy metals using fungus Aspergillus niger. Bioresour Technol 70:95–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Kapourchal SA, Kapourchal SA, Pazira E, Homaee M (2009) Assessing radish (Raphanus sativus L.) potential for phytoremediation of lead-polluted soils resulting from air pollution. Plant Soil Environ 55:202–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Kotrba P, Najmanova J, Macek T (2009) Genetically modified plants in phytoremediation of heavy metal and metalloid soil and sediment pollution. Biotechnol Adv 27:799–810CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Krämer U, Chardonnens AN (2001) The use of transgenic plants in bioremediation of soils contaminated with trace elements. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 55:661–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Krupadam RJ, Ahuja R, Wate SR (2007) Heavy metal binding fractions in the sediments of the Godavari estuary, East coast of India. Environ Model Assess 12:145–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Kumar JI, Oommen C (2012) Removal of heavy metals by bio-sorption using fresh water alga Spirogyra hyalina. J Environ Biol 33:27–31Google Scholar
  115. Kumar PBAN, Dushenkov V, Motto H, Raskin I (2002) Phytoextraction: The use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils. Environ Sci Technol 29:1232–1238Google Scholar
  116. Kumpiene J, Lagerkvist A, Maurice C (2008) Stabilization of As, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in soil using amendments—a review. Waste Manag 28:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kusell M, Lake L, Andersson M, Gerschenson LE (1978) Cellular and molecular toxicology of lead. II. Effect of lead on δ-aminolevulinic acid synthetase of cultured cells. J Toxicol Environ Health 4:515–525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Lacerda LD (1998) Trace metals biogeochemistry and diffuse pollution in mangrove ecosystems. ISME Mangrove Ecosystems Occasional Papers 2:149–157Google Scholar
  119. Lajayer BA, Ghorbanpour M, Nikabadi S (2017) Heavy metals in a contaminated environment: destiny of secondary metabolite biosynthesis, oxidative status and phytoextraction in medicinal plants. Ecotoxl Environ Saf 145:377–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Li D, Tan XY, Wu XD, Pan C, Xu P (2014) Effects of electrolyte characteristics on soil conductivity and current in electrokinetic remediation of lead-contaminated soil. Sep Purif Technol 135:14–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Lin CC, Lai YT (2006) Adsorption and recovery of lead (II) from aqueous solutions by immobilized Pseudomonas aeruginosa PU21 beads. J Hazard Mater 137:99–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Liu D, Jiang W, Liu C, Xin C, Hou W (2000) Uptake and accumulation of lead by roots, hypocotyls and shoots of Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.). Bioresour Technol 71:273–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Luo C, Shen Z, Li X (2005) Enhanced phytoextraction of Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd with EDTA and EDDS. Chemosphere 59:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Magrisso S, Belkin S, Erel Y (2009) Lead bioavailability in soil and soil components. Water Air Soil Pollut 202:315–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Mahar A, Wang P, Ali A, Awasthi MK, Lahori AH, Wang Q, Li R, Zhang Z (2016) Challenges and opportunities in the phytoremediation of heavy metals contaminated soils: a review. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 126:111–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Malar S, Vikram SS, JC Favas P, Perumal V (2014) Lead heavy metal toxicity induced changes on growth and antioxidative enzymes level in water hyacinths [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.)]. Bot Stud 55:54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Mamboya FA, Pratap HB, Mtolera M, Bjork M (1999) The effect of copper on the daily growth rate and photosynthetic efficiency of the brown macro alga Padina boergensenii. In: Richmond MD, Francis J (eds) Proceedings of the Conference on Advances on Marine Sciences in Tanzania. pp 185–192.Google Scholar
  128. Mao X, Jiang R, Xiao W, Yu J (2015) Use of surfactants for the remediation of contaminated soils: a review. J Hazard Mater 285:419–435CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Marschner P (1986) Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  130. Massaccesi G, Romero MC, Cazau MC, Bucsinszky AM (2002) Cadmium removal capacities of filamentous soil fungi isolated from industrially polluted sediments, La Plata (Argentina). World J Microbiol Biotechnol 18:817–820CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Meers E, Slycken SV, Adriaensen K, Ruttens A (2010) The use of bio-energy crops (Zea mays) for ‘phytoattenuation’ of heavy metals on moderately contaminated soils: a field experiment. Chemosphere 78:35–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Mengel K, Kirkby EA (1987) Principles of plant nutrition. Springer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  133. Mitchell N, Pérez-Sánchez D, Thorne MC (2013) A review of the behaviour of U-238 series radionuclides in soils and plants. J Radiol Prot 33:17–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Mudgal V, Madaan N, Mudgal A (2010) Heavy metals in plants: phytoremediation: plants used to remediate heavy metal poll. Agric Bio J North Amer 1:40–46Google Scholar
  135. Mukhopadhyay S, Maiti SK (2010) Phytoremediation of metal enriched mine waste: a review. Glob J Environ Res 4:135–150Google Scholar
  136. Nan Z, Cheng G (2001) Accumulation of Cd and Pb in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in calcareous soil irrigated with wastewater. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 66:748–754Google Scholar
  137. Neustadt J, Pieczenik S (2007) Toxic-metal contamination: Mercury. Integr Med 6:36–37Google Scholar
  138. Oh K, Cao T, Li T, Cheng HY (2014) Study on application of phytoremediation technology in management and remediation of contaminated soils. J Clean Ener Technol 2:216–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Okkenhaug G, Grasshorn Gebhardt KA, Amstaetter K, Lassen Bue H, Herzel H, Mariussen E, Mulder J (2016) Antimony (Sb) and lead (Pb) in contaminated shooting range soils: Sb and Pb mobility and immobilization by iron based sorbents, a field study. J Hazard Mater 307:336–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Padmavathiamma PK, Li LY (2007) Phytoremediation technology: Hyper-accumulation metals in plants. Water Air Soil Pollut 184:105–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pan TL, Wang PW, Al Suwayeh SA, Chen CC, Fang JY (2010) Skin toxicology of lead species evaluated by their permeability and proteomic profiles: a comparison of organic and inorganic lead. Toxicol Lett 197:19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Patel KS, Shrivas K, Hoffmann P, Jakubowski N (2006) A survey of lead pollution in Chhattisgarh State, central India. Environ Geochem Health 28:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Patil AJ, Bhagwat VR, Patil JA, Dongre NN, Ambekar JG, Jailkhani R, Das KK, Sheng PX (2006) Effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase in battery manufacturing workers (BMW) of western maharashtra (India) with reference to heme biosynthesis. Int J Environ Res Public Health 3:329–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Peer WA, Baxter IR, Richards EL, Freeman JL, Murphy AS (2005) Phytoremediation and hyperaccumulator plants. Topic Curr Genet 14:84Google Scholar
  145. Pence NS, Larsen PB, Ebbs SD (2000) The molecular physiology of heavy metal transport in the Zn/Cd hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:4956–4960CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Pichtel J, Kuroiwa K, Sawyerr HT (2000) Distribution of Pb, Cd and Ba in soils and plants of two contaminated soils. Environ Pollut 110: 171-178.Google Scholar
  147. Pietrzak-Fils Z, Skowronska-Smolak M (1995) Transfer of 210Pb and 210Po to plants via root system and above-ground interception. Sci Total Environ 162:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Piotrowska NA, Bajguz A, Talarek M, Bralska M, Zambrzycka E (2015) The effect of lead on the growth, content of primary metabolites, and antioxidant response of green alga Acutodesmus obliquus (Chlorophyceae). Environ Sci Pollut Res 22:19112–19123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Prasad MNV, Freitas HM (2003) Metal hyperaccumulation in plants-biodiversity prospecting for phytoremediation technology. Electron J Biotechnol 6:285–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Pratas J, Favas PJC, Paulo C, Rodrigues N, Prasad MN (2012) Uranium accumulation by aquatic plants from uranium-contaminated water in central Portugal. Int J Phytorem 14:221–234Google Scholar
  151. Purvis OW, Halls C (1996) A review of lichens in metal-enriched environment. Lichenologist 28:571–601CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Rajapaksha BE (2004) Metal toxicity affects fungal and bacterial activities in soil differently. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:2966–2973CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Rana L, Chhikara S, Dhankar R (2013) Assessment of growth rate of indigenous cyanobacteria in metal enriched culture medium. Asian J Exp Bio 4:465–471Google Scholar
  154. Reeves RD, Brooks RR (1983) Hyperaccumulation of lead and zinc by two metallophytes from mining areas of Central Europe. Environ Pollut 31:277–285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Reuer MK, Weiss DJ (2002) Anthropogenic lead dynamics in the terrestrial and marine environment. Phil Trans Royal Soc A 360:2889–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Rocchetta I, Leonardi PI, Amado Filho GM, Molina MDR, Conforti V (2007) Ultrastructure and x-raymicroanalysis of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta) under chromium stress. Phycologia 46:300–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Rossi N, Jamet JL (2008) In situ heavy metals (copper, lead and cadmium) in different plankton compartments and suspended particulate matter in two coupled Mediterranean coastal ecosystems (Toulon Bay, France). Mar Pollut Bull 56:1862–1870CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Ruttens A, Boulet J, Weyens N, Smeets K (2011) Short rotation coppice culture of willows and poplars as energy crops on metal contaminated agriculture soils. Int J Phytorem 13:194–207Google Scholar
  159. Sadik R, Lahkale R, Hssaine N, ElHatimi W, Diouri M, Sabbar E (2015) Sulfate removal from wastewater by mixed oxide-LDH: equilibrium, kinetic and thermodynamic studies. J Mater Environ Sci 6:2895–2905Google Scholar
  160. Sahi SV, Bryant NL, Sharma NC, Singh SR (2002) Characterization of a lead hyperaccumulator shrub, Sesbania drummondii. Environ Sci Technol 36:4676–4680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Sakakibara M, Ohmori Y, Ha NTH, Sano S, Sera K (2011) Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated water and sediment by Eleocharis acicularis. CLEAN-Soil Air Water 39:735–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Salazar MJ, Pignata ML (2014) Lead accumulation in plants grown in polluted soils. Screening of native species for phytoremediation. J Geochem Explor 137:29–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Salehizadeh H, Shojaosadati SA (2003) Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution by polysaccharide produced from Bacillus firmus. Water Res 37:4231–4235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Salem HM, Eweida EA, Farag A (2000) Heavy metals in drinking water and their environmental impact on human health. In: The proceedings of ICEHM 2000 meeting, Cairo University, Egypt, pp 542–556Google Scholar
  165. Santos RWD, Schmidt ÉC, Felix MRD, Polo LK, Kreusch M, Pereira DT, Costa GB, Simioni C, Chow F, Ramlov F, Maraschin M, Bouzon ZL (2014) Bioabsorption of cadmium, copper and lead by thread macro alga Gelidium floridanum: Physiological responses and ultrastructure features. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 105:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Schreck E, Foucault Y, Geret F, Pradere P, Dumat C (2011) Influence of soil ageing on bioavailability and ecotoxicity of lead carried by process waste metallic ultrafine particles. Chemosphere 85:1555–1562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Sekhar KC, Kamala CT, Chary NS, Balaram V, Garcia G (2005) Potential of Hemidesmus indicus for phytoextraction of lead from industrially contaminated soils. Chemosphere 58:507–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Sharma P, Dubey RS (2005) Lead toxicity in plants. Braz J Plant Physiol 17:35–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sheng PX, Ting Y, Chen JP, Hong L (2004) Sorption of lead, copper, cadmium, zinc and nickel by marine algal biomass: characterization of biosorptive capacity and investigation of mechanisms. J Colloid Interface Sci 275:131–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Sheoran V, Sheoran A, Poonia P (2011) Role of hyperaccumulators in phytoextraction of metals from contaminated mining sites: a review. Crit Rev Environ Sci Technol 41:168–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Sheppard SC, Sheppard MI, Sanipelli BL, Tait JC (2004) Background radionuclide concentrations in major environmental compartments of natural ecosystems. Report by Eco Matters for the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Contract No. 87055020215Google Scholar
  172. Sheppard SC, Sheppard MI, Ilin M, Tait J, Sanipelli B (2008) Primordial radionuclides in Canadian background sites: secular equilibrium and isotopic differences. J Environ Radioact 99:933–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shoty K, Weiss DW, Appleby PG, Chebrkin AK, Gloor RFM, Kramens JD (1998) History of atmosphearic lead deposition since 12,370 (14)C yr BP from a peat bog, Jura Mountains, Switzerland. Science 281:1635–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Singh D, Tiwari A, Gupta R (2012) Phytoremediation of lead from wastewater using aquatic plants. J Agr Technol 8:1–11Google Scholar
  175. Singh D, Vyas P, Sahni S, Sangwan P (2015) Phytoremediation: a biotechnological intervention. In: Kaushik G (ed) Applied environmental biotechnology: present scenario and future trends. Springer, New Delhi, pp 59–75Google Scholar
  176. Singh S (2012) Phytoremediation: a sustainable alternative for environmental challenges. Int J Gr Herb Chem 1:133–139Google Scholar
  177. Singh S, Thorat V, Kaushik CP, Raj K, Eapan S, D’Souza SF (2009) Potential of Chromolaena odorata for phytoremediation of 137Cs from solution and low level nuclear waste. J Hazard Mater 162:743–745CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Singh VK, Mishra KP, Rani R, Yadav VS, Awasthi SK, Garg SK (2003) Immunomodulation by lead. Immunol Res 28:151–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sprang PAV, Nys C, Blust RJP, Chowdhury J, Gustafsson JP, Janssen CJ, Schamphelaere KACD (2016) The derivation of effects threshold concentrations of lead for European freshwater ecosystems. Environ Toxicol Chem 35:1310–1320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Sugihara S, Efrizal Osaki S, Momoshima N, Maeda Y (2008) Seasonal variation of natural radionuclides and some elements in plant leaves. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 278:419–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Tandy S, Schulin R, Nowack B (2006) The influence of EDDS in the uptake of heavy metals in hydroponically grown sunflowers. Chemosphere 62:1454–1463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Tang YT, Qiu RL, Zeng XW, Ying RR, Yu FM, Zhou XY (2009) Lead, zinc, cadmium hyperaccumulation and growth stimulation in Arabis paniculata Franch. Environ Exp Bot 66:126–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Tangahu V, Abdullah SRS, Basri H, Idris M, Anuar N, Mukhlisin M (2011) A review on heavy metals (As, Pb, and Hg) uptake by plants through phytoremediation. Int J Chem Eng 2011:939161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tiwari S, Tripathi IP, Tiwari H (2013) Blood lead level—a review. Int J Eng Sci Technol 3:330–333Google Scholar
  185. Tong YP, Kneer R, Zhu YG (2004) Vacuolar compartmentalization: a second-generation approach to engineering plants for phytoremediation. Trend Plant Sci 9:7–9Google Scholar
  186. Truhaut R (1977) Eco-toxicology-objectives, principles and perspectives. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 1:151–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. USEPA (1992) Selection of control technologies for remediation of lead battery recycling sites. EPA/540/S-92/011. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  188. USEPA (2000a) Electrokinetic and phytoremediation in situ treatment of metal-contaminated soil: state-of-the-practice. EPA/542. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response Technology Innovation Office, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  189. USEPA (2000b) Introduction to phytoremediation EPA/600/R-99/107. US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Cincinnati, OH, USAGoogle Scholar
  190. Uslu G, Tanyol M (2006) Equilibrium and thermodynamic parameters of single and binary mixture biosorption of lead (II) and copper (II) ions onto Pseudomonas putida: Effect of temperature. J Hazard Mater 135:87–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Vaaramaa K, Solatie D, Aro L (2009) Distribution of 210Pb and 210Po concentrations in wild berries and mushrooms in boreal forest ecosystems. Sci Total Environ 408:84–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Vandenhove H, Olyslaegers G, Sanzharova N, Shubina O, Reed E, Shang Z, Velasco H (2009) Proposal for new best estimates of the soil-to-plant transfer factor of U, Th, Ra, Pb and Po. J Environ Radioact 100:721–732CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Vangronsveld J, Herzig R, Weyens N, Kristin JB, Ruttens AA, Andon TT, Erik V, Erika M, Daniel N, Mench VLM (2009) Phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater: lessons from the field. Environ Sci Pollut Res 16:765–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Vardanyan LG, Ingole BS (2006) Studies on heavy metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from Sevan (Armenia) and Carambolim (India) lake system. Environ Int 32:208–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Veglio F, Beolchini F (1997) Removal of metals by biosorption: a review. Hydrometallurgy 44:301–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Vishnoi SR, Srivastava PN (2008) Phytoremediation-green for environmental clean. In: Sengupta M, Dalwani R (eds) Procedding of Taal 2007:The 12th World Lake conference, Jaipur, India, pp 1016–1021Google Scholar
  197. Vodnik D, Grčman H, Maček I, van Elteren JT, Kovačevič M (2008) The contribution of glomalin-related soil protein to Pb and Zn sequestration in polluted soil. Sci Total Environ 392:130–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Walraven N, Bakker M, van Os BJH, Klaver GT, Middelburg JJ, Davies GR (2015) Factors controlling the oral bioaccessibility of anthropogenic Pb in polluted soils. Sci Total Environ 506-507:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Wan X, Lei M, Chen T (2016) Cost–benefit calculation of phytoremediation technology for heavy-metal-contaminated soil. Sci Total Environ 563–564:796–802CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Wang C, Fan X, Wang P, Hou J, Ao Y, Miao L (2016) Adsorption behavior of lead on aquatic sediments contaminated with cerium dioxide nanoparticles. Environ Pollut 219:416–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Wang J, Shen Y, Xue S, Hartley W, Wu H, Shi L (2018) The physiological response of Mirabilis jalapa L. to lead stress and accumulation. Int Biodeter Biodegr 128:11–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wang JL (2002) Immobilization techniques for biocatalysts and water pollution contamination. Sci Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  203. Wilde EW, Brigmon RL, Dunn DL, Heitkamp MA, Dagnan DC (2005) Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soil by Vetiver grass. Chemosphere 61:1451–1457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Wildt K, Eliasson R, Berlin M (1977) Effects of occupational exposure to lead on sperm and semen. In: Clarkson TW, Nordberg GF, Sager PR (eds) Reproductive and developmental toxicity of metals. Springer, New York, pp 279–300Google Scholar
  205. Wuana RA, Okieimen FE (2011) Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. Afr J Gen Agri 6:1–20Google Scholar
  206. Xiong ZT (1997) Bioaccumulation and physiological effects of excess lead in a roadside pioneer species Sonchus oleraceus L. Environ Pollut 97:275–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Yadav KK, Gupta N, Kumar V, Singh JK (2017) Bioremediation of heavy metals from contaminated sites using potential species: a review. Ind J Envir Prot 37:65–84Google Scholar
  208. Yan G, Viraraghavan T (2001) Heavy metal removal in a biosorption column by immobilized Mucor rouxii biomass. Bioresour Technol 78:243–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Yoon J, Cao X, Zhou Q, Ma LQ (2006) Accumulation of Pb, Cu, and Zn in native plants growing on a contaminated Florida site. Sci Total Environ 368:456–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Yuan L, Zhi W, Liu Y, Karyala S, Vikesland PJ, Chen X, Zhang H (2015) Lead toxicity to the performance, viability, and community composition of activated sludge microorganisms. Environ Sci Technol 49:824–830CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Zacchini M, Pietrini F, Bianconi D, Iori V, Congiu M, Mughini G (2011) Physiological and biochemical characterisation of Eucalyptus hybrid clones treated with cadmium in hydroponics: perspectives for the phytoremediation of polluted waters. In:Book of Abstract, 5th European Bioremediation Conference. Technical University of Crete, Chania, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  212. Zaier H, Ghnaya T, Lakhdar A, Baioui R, Ghabriche R, Mnasri M, Sghair S, Lutts S, Abdelly C (2010) Comparative study of Pb-phytoextraction potential in Sesuvium portulacastrum and Brassica juncea: tolerance and accumulation. J Hazard Mater 183:609–615CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Zhang W, Chen L, Zhang R, Lin K (2016) High throughput sequencing analysis of the joint effects of BDE209-Pb on soil bacterial community structure. J Hazard Mater 301:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bhagawatilal Jagetiya
    • 1
  • Sandeep Kumar
    • 1
  1. 1.Phytotechnology Research Laboratory, Department of BotanyM.L.V. Government CollegeBhilwaraIndia

Personalised recommendations