Crusts and Incrustations on Natural and Architectural Objects

  • Raisa V. LobzovaEmail author
  • Oxana V. Karimova
  • Elena I. Antonova
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth System Sciences book series (LNESS)


New data on investigations of different formations on the natural and architectural objects are presented. The purpose of our research is to identify the structure, the mineral composition and reasons of the new formations and deposits on various natural and artificial materials of monuments of cultural heritage. The complex of analytical methods was used: optical microscopy, electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Crusts and incrustation on the following objects are represented: rock art (“patina” of petroglyphs on metamorphic rocks), on alkali rocks in Siberia (Sangilen, Batagol); on granite facing stones and statues in urban environment (Kamenny and Moskvoresky Bridges and others, pedestals of sculptures); on limestone blocks of white stone and cast iron floor plates at the Yur’ev-Polskoy Cathedrals, terracotta and glazed ceramic products. The new formations are the result of a complex of reasons: seasonal development of biota, interaction of microbial communities, chemical oxidation, fluctuations in temperature and humidity and gas conditions, both general and local, associated with anthropogenic factors. All this determines the morphology, structure, texture and chemical composition of the local formation of the material. Limestones and marble are subject to the greatest biogenic destruction, and irrigated ceramic products are the least affected.


Rock art Granite Marble Limestone Ceramics Solutions Salts Optical petrology Electron microscopy X-ray diffraction 



Authors are grateful to O. L. Magazina for SEM analysis.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Raisa V. Lobzova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Oxana V. Karimova
    • 2
  • Elena I. Antonova
    • 1
  1. 1.State Research Institute for RestorationMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Geology of Ore Deposits RAS (IGEM RAS)MoscowRussia

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