Advertisement

Password-Authenticated Public-Key Encryption

  • Tatiana Bradley
  • Jan Camenisch
  • Stanislaw JareckiEmail author
  • Anja Lehmann
  • Gregory Neven
  • Jiayu Xu
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 11464)

Abstract

We introduce password-authenticated public-key encryption (PAPKE), a new cryptographic primitive. PAPKE enables secure end-to-end encryption between two entities without relying on a trusted third party or other out-of-band mechanisms for authentication. Instead, resistance to man-in-the-middle attacks is ensured in a human-friendly way by authenticating the public key with a shared password, while preventing offline dictionary attacks given the authenticated public key and/or the ciphertexts produced using this key.

Our contributions are three-fold. First, we provide property-based and universally composable (UC) definitions for PAPKE, with the resulting primitive combining CCA security of public-key encryption (PKE) with password authentication. Second, we show that PAPKE implies Password-Authenticated Key Exchange (PAKE), but the reverse implication does not hold, indicating that PAPKE is a strictly stronger primitive than PAKE. Indeed, PAPKE implies a two-flow PAKE which remains secure if either party re-uses its state in multiple sessions, e.g. due to communication errors, thus strengthening existing notions of PAKE security. Third, we show two highly practical UC PAPKE schemes: a generic construction built from CCA-secure and anonymous PKE and an ideal cipher, and a direct construction based on the Decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption in the random oracle model.

Finally, applying our PAPKE-to-PAKE compiler to the above PAPKE schemes we exhibit the first 2-round UC PAKE’s with efficiency comparable to (unauthenticated) Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange.

Notes

Acknowledgments

Anja Lehmann was supported by the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under Grant Agreement No. 786725 (OLYMPUS). Tatiana Bradley, Stanislaw Jarecki, and Jiayu Xu were supported by the NSF Cybersecurity Innovation for Cyberinfrastructure (CICI) Grant Award No. ACI-1547435.

Supplementary material

References

  1. 1.
    Abdalla, M., Bellare, M., Neven, G.: Robust encryption. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2008/440 (2008). http://eprint.iacr.org/2008/440
  2. 2.
    Abdalla, M., Bellare, M., Rogaway, P.: The oracle diffie-hellman assumptions and an analysis of DHIES. In: Naccache, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2001. LNCS, vol. 2020, pp. 143–158. Springer, Heidelberg (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45353-9_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Abdalla, M., Catalano, D., Chevalier, C., Pointcheval, D.: Efficient two-party password-based key exchange protocols in the UC framework. In: Malkin, T. (ed.) CT-RSA 2008. LNCS, vol. 4964, pp. 335–351. Springer, Heidelberg (2008).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-79263-5_22CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Abdalla, M., Pointcheval, D.: Simple password-based encrypted key exchange protocols. In: Menezes, A. (ed.) CT-RSA 2005. LNCS, vol. 3376, pp. 191–208. Springer, Heidelberg (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-30574-3_14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Abu-Salma, R., Sasse, M.A., Bonneau, J., Danilova, A., Naiakshina, A., Smith, M.: Obstacles to the adoption of secure communication tools. In: 2017 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 137–153. IEEE Computer Society Press, May 2017Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bellare, M., Boldyreva, A., Desai, A., Pointcheval, D.: Key-privacy in public-key encryption. In: Boyd, C. (ed.) ASIACRYPT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2248, pp. 566–582. Springer, Heidelberg (2001).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45682-1_33CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bellare, M., Pointcheval, D., Rogaway, P.: Authenticated key exchange secure against dictionary attacks. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 139–155. Springer, Heidelberg (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45539-6_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bellovin, S.M., Merritt, M.: Encrypted key exchange: password-based protocols secure against dictionary attacks. In: 1992 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 72–84. IEEE Computer Society Press, May 1992Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bernstein, D.J., Hamburg, M., Krasnova, A., Lange, T.: Elligator: elliptic-curve points indistinguishable from uniform random strings. In: Sadeghi, A.R., Gligor, V.D., Yung, M. (eds.) ACM CCS 2013, pp. 967–980. ACM Press, November 2013Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Black, J., Rogaway, P.: Ciphers with arbitrary finite domains. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) CT-RSA 2002. LNCS, vol. 2271, pp. 114–130. Springer, Heidelberg (2002).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45760-7_9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Boyko, V., MacKenzie, P., Patel, S.: Provably secure password-authenticated key exchange using Diffie-Hellman. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 156–171. Springer, Heidelberg (2000).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-45539-6_12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bradley, T., Camenisch, J., Jarecki, S., Lehmann, A., Neven, G., Xu, J.: Password-authenticated public key encryption. Cryptology ePrint Archive, Report 2019/199 (2019). http://eprint.iacr.org/2019/199
  13. 13.
    Burr, W.E., et al.: Electronic Authentication Guideline. NIST Special Publication, Gaithersburg (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Canetti, R.: Universally composable security: a new paradigm for cryptographic protocols. In: 42nd FOCS, pp. 136–145. IEEE Computer Society Press, October 2001Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Canetti, R., Halevi, S., Katz, J., Lindell, Y., MacKenzie, P.: Universally composable password-based key exchange. In: Cramer, R. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2005. LNCS, vol. 3494, pp. 404–421. Springer, Heidelberg (2005).  https://doi.org/10.1007/11426639_24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dai, Y., Steinberger, J.: Indifferentiability of 8-round Feistel networks. In: Robshaw, M., Katz, J. (eds.) CRYPTO 2016. LNCS, vol. 9814, pp. 95–120. Springer, Heidelberg (2016).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-53018-4_4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fujisaki, E., Okamoto, T.: Secure integration of asymmetric and symmetric encryption schemes. In: Wiener, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 1999. LNCS, vol. 1666, pp. 537–554. Springer, Heidelberg (1999).  https://doi.org/10.1007/3-540-48405-1_34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guardian: Whatsapp design feature means some encrypted messages could be read by third party (2017). https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2017/jan/13/whatsapp-design-feature-encrypted-messages/
  19. 19.
    Holenstein, T., Künzler, R., Tessaro, S.: The equivalence of the random oracle model and the ideal cipher model, revisited. In: Fortnow, L., Vadhan, S.P. (eds.) 43rd ACM STOC, pp. 89–98. ACM Press, June 2011Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Huima, A.: The Bubble Babble binary data encoding (2000). http://web.mit.edu/kenta/www/one/bubblebabble/spec/jrtrjwzi/draft-huima-01.txt/
  21. 21.
    Jutla, C.S., Roy, A.: Dual-system simulation-soundness with applications to UC-PAKE and more. In: Iwata, T., Cheon, J.H. (eds.) ASIACRYPT 2015. LNCS, vol. 9452, pp. 630–655. Springer, Heidelberg (2015).  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-48797-6_26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Katz, J., Vaikuntanathan, V.: Round-optimal password-based authenticated key exchange. J. Cryptology 26(4), 714–743 (2013)MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    OpenSSH 5.1 release announcement (2008). https://www.openssh.com/txt/release-5.1/
  24. 24.
    Rivest, R.L., Lampson, B.: SDSI - a simple distributed security infrastructure (1996). http://people.csail.mit.edu/rivest/sdsi10.html/
  25. 25.
    Tan, J., Bauer, L., Bonneau, J., Cranor, L.F., Thomas, J., Ur, B.: Can unicorns help users compare crypto key fingerprints? In: Mark, G., et al. (eds.) CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 3787–3798. ACM (2017)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tufekci, Z.: In response to guardian’s irresponsible reporting on whatsapp: a plea for responsible and contextualized reporting on user security (2017). http://technosociology.org/?page_id=1687/
  27. 27.
    Unger, N., et al.: SoK: secure messaging. In: 2015 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, pp. 232–249. IEEE Computer Society Press, May 2015Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    WhatsApp encryption overview: technical white paper (2016). https://www.whatsapp.com/security/WhatsApp-Security-Whitepaper.pdf/

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tatiana Bradley
    • 1
  • Jan Camenisch
    • 2
  • Stanislaw Jarecki
    • 1
    Email author
  • Anja Lehmann
    • 3
  • Gregory Neven
    • 2
  • Jiayu Xu
    • 1
  1. 1.University of CaliforniaIrvineUSA
  2. 2.DfinityPalo AltoGermany
  3. 3.IBM Research - ZurichRüschlikonSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations