Seborrheic Dermatitis

  • Daniel Asz-Sigall
  • Antonella Tosti


Seborrheic dermatitis (SD) is a chronic relapsing erythematous scaly disease with a prevalence of 1–3% in the general population. The exact etiology is unknown and multifactorial; the most accepted theory suggests that yeast of Malassezia spp. causes skin irritation and inflammation on the seborrheic areas in susceptible individuals. The clinical diagnosis is based on the location and appearance of the lesions. Treatment objective is to clear the signs of the disease, ameliorate the symptoms, and maintain remission with long-term therapy. Topical antifungal and anti-inflammatory agents are the first-line therapy. Systemic therapy is reserved only for severe or refractory cases, and alternative therapies have also been reported.


Seborrheic dermatitis Dandruff Sebaceous gland Malassezia spp. Epidermal barrier Treatment Antifungals Anti-inflammatory agents Oral isotretinoin 


  1. 1.
    Borda LJ, Perper M, Keri JE. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: a comprehensive review. J Dermatolog Treat. 2019;30:158–69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sasseville D. Seborrheic dermatitis. In: Post TW, editor. UpToDate. Waltham, MA: UptoDate Inc. Accessed on July 2018.
  3. 3.
    Arenas R. Dermatologia Atlas, diagnóstico y tratamiento. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Mexico; 2015. p. 65–70.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cheong WK, Yeung CK, Torsekar RG, Suh DH, Ungpakorn R, Widaty S, et al. Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in Asia: a consensus guide. Skin Appendage Disord. 2016;1(4):187–96.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Clark GW, Pope SM, Jaboori KA. Diagnosis and treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2015;91(3):185–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Borda LJ, Wikramanayake TC. Seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff: a comprehensive review. J Clin Investig Dermatol. 2015;3(2)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sampaio AL, Mameri AC, Vargas TJ, Ramos-e-Silva M, Nunes AP, Carneiro SC. Seborrheic dermatitis. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86(6):1061–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baumert C, Melo M, Vincent EC. Topical medications for seborrheic dermatitis. Am Fam Physician. 2017;95(5):329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kamamoto CSL, Nishikaku AS, Gompertz OF, Melo AS, Hassun KM, Bagatin E. Cutaneous fungal microbiome: Malassezia yeasts in seborrheic dermatitis scalp in a randomized, comparative and therapeutic trial. Dermatoendocrinol. 2017;9(1):e1361573.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Okokon EO, Verbeek JH, Ruotsalainen JH, Ojo OA, Bakhoya VN. Topical antifungals for seborrhoeic dermatitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;5:CD008138.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Karakadze MA, Hirt PA, Wikramanayake TC. The genetic basis of seborrhoeic dermatitis: a review. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2018;32(4):529–36.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mameri ACA, Carneiro S, Mameri LMA, Telles da Cunha JM, Ramos-E-Silva M. History of seborrheic dermatitis: conceptual and clinico-pathologic evolution. Skinmed. 2017;15(3):187–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dessinioti C, Katsambas A. Seborrheic dermatitis: etiology, risk factors, and treatments: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol. 2013;31(4):343–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Angiolella L, Carradori S, Maccallini C, Giusiano G, Supuran CT. Targeting Malassezia species for novel synthetic and natural antidandruff agents. Curr Med Chem. 2017;24(22):2392–412.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kastarinen H, Okokon EO, Verbeek JH. Topical anti-inflammatory agents for seborrheic dermatitis of the face or scalp: summary of a Cochrane Review. JAMA Dermatol. 2015;151(2):221–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Tosti A. Dermoscopy of the hair and nails, vol. 115. 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2016.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Apasrawirote W, Udompataikul M, Rattanamongkolgul S. Topical antifungal agents for seborrheic dermatitis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Med Assoc Thai. 2011;94(6):756–60.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dall’Oglio F, Lacarrubba F, Verzì AE, Micali G. Noncorticosteroid combination shampoo versus 1% ketoconazole shampoo for the management of mild-to-moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results from a randomized, investigator-single-blind trial using clinical and trichoscopic evaluation. Skin Appendage Disord. 2016;1(3):126–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Buechner SA. Multicenter, double-blind, parallel group study investigating the non-inferiority of efficacy and safety of a 2% miconazole nitrate shampoo in comparison with a 2% ketoconazole shampoo in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25(3):226–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schwartz JR. Zinc pyrithione: a topical antimicrobial with complex pharmaceutics. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(2):140–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Piérard-Franchimont C, Goffin V, Decroix J, Piérard GE. A multicenter randomized trial of ketoconazole 2% and zinc pyrithione 1% shampoos in severe dandruff and seborrheic dermatitis. Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2002;15(6):434–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barak-Shinar D, Green LJ. Scalp seborrheic dermatitis and dandruff therapy using a herbal and zinc pyrithione-based therapy of shampoo and scalp lotion. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2018;11(1):26–31.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kastarinen H, Oksanen T, Okokon EO, Kiviniemi VV, Airola K, Jyrkka J. et al., Topical anti-inflammatory agents for seborrhoeic dermatitis of the face or scalp. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(5):CD009446.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Faergemann J. Seborrhoeic dermatitis and Pityrosporum orbiculare: treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp with miconazole-hydrocortisone (Daktacort), miconazole and hydrocortisone. Br J Dermatol. 1986;114(6):695–700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ortonne JP, Lacour JP, Vitetta A, Le Fichoux Y. Comparative study of ketoconazole 2% foaming gel and betamethasone dipropionate 0.05% lotion in the treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis in adults. Dermatology. 1992;184(4):275–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Youn HJ, Kim SY, Park M, Jung WH, Lee YW, Choe YB, et al. Efficacy and safety of cream containing climbazole/piroctone olamine for facial seborrheic dermatitis: a single- center, open-label split-face clinical study. Ann Dermatol. 2016;28(6):733–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Turlier V, Viode C, Durbise E, Bacquey A, LeJeune O, Oliveira Soares R, et al. Clinical and biochemical assessment of maintenance treatment in chronic recurrent seborrheic dermatitis: randomized controlled study. Dermatol Ther (Heidelb). 2014;4(1):43–59.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Braga PC, Dal Sasso M, Fonti E, Culici M. Antioxidant activity of bisabolol: inhibitory effects on chemiluminescence of human neutrophil bursts and cell-free systems. Pharmacology. 2009;83(2):110–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Del Rosso JQ. Adult seborrheic dermatitis: a status report on practical topical management. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2011;4(5):32–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Kroes BH, Beukelman CJ, van den Berg AJ, Wolbink GJ, van Dijk H, Labadie RP. Inhibition of human complement by beta-glycyrrhetinic acid. Immunology. 1997;90(1):115–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Schmidt-Rose T, Braren S, Folster H, Hillemann T, Oltrogge B, Philipp P, et al. Efficacy of a piroctone olamine/climbazol shampoo in comparison with a zinc pyrithione shampoo in subjects with moderate to severe dandruff. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2011;33(3):276–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kim Y, Alpmann P, Blaum-Feder S, Kramer S, Endo T, Lu D, et al. Increased in vivo efficacy of lenalidomide by addition of piroctone olamine. In Vivo. 2011;25(1):99–103.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Elewski B. An investigator-blind, randomized, 4-week, parallel-group, multicenter pilot study to compare the safety and efficacy of a nonsteroidal cream (Promiseb Topical Cream) and desonide cream 0.05% in the twice-daily treatment of mild to moderate seborrheic dermatitis of the face. Clin Dermatol. 2009;27(6 Suppl):S48–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Legrand D, Elass E, Carpentier M, Mazurier J. Lactoferrin: a modulator of immune and inflammatory responses. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2005;62(22):2549–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Danby FW, Maddin WS, Margesson LJ, Rosenthal D. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ketoconazole 2% shampoo versus selenium sulfide 2.5% shampoo in the treatment of moderate to severe dandruff. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1993;29(6):1008–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gupta AK, Nicol K. The use of sulfur in dermatology. J Drugs Dermatol. 2004;3(4):427–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Garcia RL, Miller JD, Miller WN. Occlusive tar extract therapy for recalcitrant psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp. Cutis. 1978;22(1):90–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Piérard-Franchimont C, Piérard GE, Vroome V, Lin GC, Appa Y. Comparative anti-dandruff efficacy between a tar and a non-tar shampoo. Dermatology. 2000;200(2):181–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Veien NK, Pilgaard CE, Gade M. Seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp treated with a tar/zinc pyrithione shampoo. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1980;5(1):53–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goldman WJ. Carcinogenicity of coal-tar shampoo. Lancet. 1995;345(8945):326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Seite S, Rougier A, Talarico S. Randomized study comparing the efficacy and tolerance of a lipohydroxy acid shampoo to a ciclopiroxolamine shampoo in the treatment of scalp seborrheic dermatitis. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2009;8(4):249–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Emtestam L, Svensson A, Rensfeldt K. Treatment of seborrhoeic dermatitis of the scalp with a topical solution of urea, lactic acid, and propylene glycol (K301): results of two double- blind, randomised, placebo-controlled studies. Mycoses. 2012;55(5):393–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Van Weelden H, De La Faille HB, Young E, van der Leun JC. A new development in UVB phototherapy of psoriasis. Br J Dermatol. 1988;119(1):11–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Honig B, Morison WL, Karp D. Photochemotherapy beyond psoriasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1994;31(5 Pt 1):775–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Herzinger T, Berneburg M, Ghoreschi K, Gollnick H, Holzle E, Honigsmann H, et al. S1- Guidelines on UV phototherapy and photochemotherapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2016;14(8):853–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pirkhammer D, Seeber A, Honigsmann H, Tanew A. Narrow-band ultraviolet B (ATL-01) phototherapy is an effective and safe treatment option for patients with severe seborrhoeic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2000;143(5):964–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ghodsi SZ, Abbas Z, Abedeni R. Efficacy of oral itraconazole in the treatment and relapse prevention of moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, placebo- controlled trial. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2015;16(5):431–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Das J, Majumdar M, Chakraborty U, Majumdar V, Mazumdar G, Nath J. Oral itraconazole for the treatment of severe seborrhoeic dermatitis. Indian J Dermatol. 2011;56(5):515–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shemer A, Kaplan B, Nathansohn N, Grunwald MH, Amichai B, Trau H. Treatment of moderate to severe facial seborrheic dermatitis with itraconazole: an open non-comparative study. Isr Med Assoc J. 2008;10(6):417–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gupta AK, Richardson M, Paquet M. Systematic review of oral treatments for seborrheic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2014;28(1):16–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Abbas Z, Ghodsi SZ, Abedeni R. Effect of itraconazole on the quality of life in patients with moderate to severe seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2016;6(3):11–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vena GA, Micali G, Santoianni P, Cassano N, Peruzzi E. Oral terbinafine in the treatment of multi-site seborrheic dermatitis: a multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled study. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2005;18(4):745–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Cassano N, Amoruso A, Loconsole F, Vena GA. Oral terbinafine for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis in adults. Int J Dermatol. 2002;41(11):821–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Scaparro E, Quadri G, Virno G, Orifici C, Milani M. Evaluation of the efficacy and tolerability of oral terbinafine (Daskil) in patients with seborrhoeic dermatitis. A multicentre, randomized, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 2001;144(4):854–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zisova LG. Fluconazole and its place in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis--new therapeutic possibilities. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2006;48(1):39–45.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Zisova LG. Treatment of Malassezia species associated seborrheic blepharitis with fluconazole. Folia Med (Plovdiv). 2009;51(3):57–9.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Comert A, Bekiroglu N, Gurbuz O, Ergun T. Efficacy of oral fluconazole in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis: a placebo-controlled study. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2007;8(4):235–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ford GP, Farr PM, Ive FA, Shuster S. The response of seborrhoeic dermatitis to ketoconazole. Br J Dermatol. 1984;111(5):603–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Odds F, Ausma J, Van Gerven F, Woestenborghs F, Meerpoel L, Heeres J, et al. In vitro and in vivo activities of the novel azole antifungal agent r126638. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48(2):388–91.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Vanden Bossche H, Ausma J, Bohets H, Vermuyten K, Willemsens G, Marichal P, et al. The novel azole R126638 is a selective inhibitor of ergosterol synthesis in Candida albicans, Trichophyton spp., and Microsporum canis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004;48(9):3272–8.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Pierard GE, Ausma J, Henry F, Vroome V, Wouters L, Borgers M, et al. A pilot study on seborrheic dermatitis using pramiconazole as a potent oral anti-Malassezia agent. Dermatology. 2007;214(2):162–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Zouboulis CC. Isotretinoin revisited: pluripotent effects on human sebaceous gland cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2006;126(10):2154–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Nelson AM, Zhao W, Gilliland KL, Zaenglein AL, Liu W, Thiboutot DM. Isotretinoin temporally regulates distinct sets of genes in patient skin. J Invest Dermatol. 2009;129(4):1038–42.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    King K, Jones DH, Daltrey DC, Cunliffe WJ. A double-blind study of the effects of 13-cis- retinoic acid on acne, sebum excretion rate and microbial population. Br J Dermatol. 1982;107(5):583–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Rademaker M. Low-dose isotretinoin for seborrhoeic dermatitis. J Cutan Med Surg. 2017;21(2):170–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    de Souza Leão Kamamoto C, Sanudo A, Hassun KM, Bagatin E. Low-dose oral isotretinoin for moderate to severe seborrhea and seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized comparative trial. Int J Dermatol. 2017;56(1):80–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hashemi SA, Madani SA, Abediankenari S. The review on properties of Aloe Vera in healing of cutaneous wounds. Biomed Res Int. 2015;2015:714216.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rosca-Casian O, Parvu M, Vlase L, Tamas M. Antifungal activity of Aloe vera leaves. Fitoterapia. 2007;78(3):219–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tollesson A, Frithz A. Borage oil, an effective new treatment for infantile seborrhoeic dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 1993;129(1):95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Tollesson A, Frithz A, Stenlund K. Malassezia furfur in infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1997;14(6):423–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Pazyar N, Yaghoobi R, Bagherani N, Kazerouni A. A review of applications of tea tree oil in dermatology. Int J Dermatol. 2013;52(7):784–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Satchell AC, Saurajen A, Bell C, Barnetson RS. Treatment of dandruff with 5% tea tree oil shampoo. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2002;47(6):852–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Nenoff P, Haustein UF, Brandt W. Antifungal activity of the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree oil) against pathogenic fungi in vitro. Skin Pharmacol. 1996;9(6):388–94.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Diehl C, Ferrari A. Efficacy of topical 4% Quassia amara gel in facial seborrheic dermatitis: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(3):312–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Herrera-Arellano A, Jimenez-Ferrer E, Vega-Pimentel AM, Martinez-Rivera Mde L, Hernandez-Hernandez M, Zamilpa A, et al. Clinical and mycological evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness of Solanum chrysotrichum standardized extract on patients with Pityriasis capitis (dandruff). A double blind and randomized clinical trial controlled with ketoconazole. Planta Med. 2004;70(6):483–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Caspeta L, Nieto I, Zamilpa A, Alvarez L, Quintero R, Villarreal ML. Solanum chrysotrichum hairy root cultures: characterization, scale-up and production of five antifungal saponins for human use. Planta Med. 2005;71(11):1084–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith SA, Baker AE, Williams JH. Effective treatment of seborrheic dermatitis using a low dose, oral homeopathic medication consisting of potassium bromide, sodium bromide, nickel sulfate, and sodium chloride in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Altern Med Rev. 2002;7(1):59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Brenner S, Horwitz C. Possible nutrient mediators in psoriasis and seborrheic dermatitis. II. Nutrient mediators: essential fatty acids; vitamins A, E and D; vitamins B1, B2, B6, niacin and biotin; vitamin C selenium; zinc; iron. World Rev Nutr Diet. 1988;55:165–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schwartz JR, Marsh RG, Draelos ZD. Zinc and skin health: overview of physiology and pharmacology. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31(7 Pt 2):837–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nisenson A, Barness LA. Treatment of seborrheic dermatitis with biotin and vitamin B complex. J Pediatr. 1972;81(3):630–1.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Keipert JA. Oral use of biotin in seborrhoeic dermatitis of infancy: a controlled trial. Med J Aust. 1976;1(16):584–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Fabbrocini G, Cantelli M, Monfrecola G. Topical nicotinamide for seborrheic dermatitis: an open randomized study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2014;25(3):241–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakayama J. Four cases of sebopsoriasis or seborrheic dermatitis of the face and scalp successfully treated with 1a-24 (R)-dihydroxycholecalciferol (tacalcitol) cream. Eur J Dermatol. 2000;10(7):528–32.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pierard GE, Pierard-Franchimont C. Effect of a topical erythromycin-zinc formulation on sebum delivery. Evaluation by combined photometric-multi-step samplings with Sebutape. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1993;18(5):410–3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Shuster S, Meynadier J, Kerl H, Nolting S. Treatment and prophylaxis of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp with antipityrosporal 1% ciclopirox shampoo. Arch Dermatol. 2005;141(1):47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lebwohl M, Plott T. Safety and efficacy of ciclopirox 1% shampoo for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp in the US population: results of a double-blind, vehicle-controlled trial. Int J Dermatol. 2004;43 Suppl 1:17–20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Reygagne P, Poncet M, Sidou F, Soto P. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: results of a pilot study. Cutis. 2007;79(5):397–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    O’Connor NR, McLaughlin MR, Ham P. Newborn skin. I Common rashes. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77(1):47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Brodell RT, Patel S, Venglarcik JS, Moses D, Gemmel D. The safety of ketoconazole shampoo for infantile seborrheic dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1998;15(5):406–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    David E, Tanuos H, Sullivan T, Yan A, Kircik LH. A double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study to estimate the efficacy and tolerability of a nonsteroidal cream for the treatment of cradle cap (seborrheic dermatitis). J Drugs Dermatol. 2013;12(4):448–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wannanukul S, Chiabunkana J. Comparative study of 2% ketoconazole cream and 1% hydrocortisone cream in the treatment of infantile seborrheic dermatitis. J Med Assoc Thail. 2004;87(suppl 2):S68–71.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Gupta AK, Bluhm R. Seborrheic dermatitis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2004;18(1):13–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Peter RU, Richarz-Barthauer U. Successful treatment and prophylaxis of scalp seborrhoeic dermatitis and dandruff with 2% ketoconazole shampoo: results of a multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol. 1995;132(3):441–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Asz-Sigall
    • 1
  • Antonella Tosti
    • 2
  1. 1.National University of Mexico, Department of Onco-dermatology and Trichology ClinicMexico CityMexico
  2. 2.Fredric Brandt Endowed Professor of Dermatology, Dr. Phillip Frost Department of Dermatology and Cutaneous SurgeryUniversity of Miami Miller School of MedicineMiamiUSA

Personalised recommendations