• Catherine Yuan Gao
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Global Higher Education book series (PSGHE)


As a country that has attracted countless migrants, Australia has advantages in internationalizing its higher education sector, and Australian universities’ tolerance of multiple cultures makes them prevalent destinations for international students. Australian universities’ splendid outcomes in recruiting international students have contributed significantly to their financial stability and sustainability, while the over-reliance on fee-paying international students has aroused concerns about the declining quality of the degrees. From the perspective of Australian universities’ leaders, the economic incentive for being internationalized is not the entire picture, and academic excellence, as well as cultural openness and tolerance, are at least equally important as the economic motivation. Universities have taken actions already to expand the breadth and depth of internationalization to maintain their competitiveness in the global market.


  1. Asian Studies Council. (1988). A national strategy for the study of Asia in Australia. Asian Studies Review, 12(2), 85–87.Google Scholar
  2. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2011). Australian social trends December 2011: International student. Retrieved 16 October 2012 from
  3. Back, K., & Davis, D. (1995). Internationalization of higher education in Australia. In J. Knight & H. de Wit (Eds.), Strategies for internationalization of higher education: A comparative study of Australia, Canada, Europe and the United States of America (pp. 121–153). Amsterdam: EAIE.Google Scholar
  4. de Wit, H., & Adams, T. (2011). Global competition in higher education: A comparative study of policies, rationales, and practices in Australia and Europe. In H. de Wit (Ed.), Trends, issues and challenges in internationalisation of higher education (pp. 29–38). Amsterdam: Centre for Applied Research on Economics and Management Hogeschool van Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  5. Harman, G. (2004). New directions in internationalizing higher education: Australia’s development as an exporter of higher education. Higher Education Policy, 17(1), 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Harman, G. (2005). Internationalisation of Australian higher education. In M. Tight (Ed.), International relations (Vol. 3, pp. 205–232). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Krause, K.-L., Coates, H., & James, R. (2005). Monitoring the internationalisation of higher education: Are there useful quantitative performance indicators? In M. Tight (Ed.), International relations (International perspectives on higher education research) (Vol. 3, pp. 233–253). Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  8. Marginson, S. (2011). Global position and position-taking in higher education: The case of Australia. In S. Marginson, S. Kaur, & E. Sawir (Eds.), Higher education in the Asia-Pacific: Strategic responses to globalization (pp. 375–392). Dordrecht and London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Marginson, S. (2012). International education in Australia: The roller coaster. International Higher Education, 68(Summer), 11–13.Google Scholar
  10. Marginson, S., & van der Wende, M. (2007). Globalisation and higher education. (OECD Education Working Papers, No. 8). OECD Publishing.
  11. Murray, D., Hall, R., Leask, B., Marginson, S., & Ziguras, C. (2011). State of current research in international education. Melbourne: LH Martin Institute, IEAA, Australian Government Australian Education International.Google Scholar
  12. OECD. (2018). Education at a glance 2018: OECD indicators. Paris: OECD Publishing.
  13. Rizvi, F. (2004). Globalisation and the dilemmas of Australian higher education critical perspectives on communication. Cultural and Policy Studies, 23(2), 33–42.Google Scholar
  14. Stier, J. (2004). Taking a critical stance toward internationalization ideologies in higher education: Idealism, instrumentalism and educationalism. Globalisation, Societies and Education, 2(1), 83–97.Google Scholar
  15. Turpin, T., Iredale, R., & Crinnion, P. (2002). The internationalization of higher education: Implications for Australia and its education `clients’. Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and Policy, 40(4), 327–340.Google Scholar
  16. Universities Australia. (2014). International links of Australian Universities: Formal agreements between Australian universities and overseas higher education institutions. Retrieved 3 March 2015 from
  17. Universities Australia. (2018). Data snapshot 2018. Retrieved 6 January 2019, from file:///C:/Users/e5108961/Downloads/Data%20snapshot%202018%20web.pdf.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Catherine Yuan Gao
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for International Research on EducationVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations