Refractory Performances and Mechanism of Damages

  • Prasunjit Sengupta


This chapter deals with performance of Refractories in the Cement industry. The factors which determine the performance of Refractory are addressed in details. It shows that although Refractory quality is very important, the refractory performances depend only to a small extent on Refractory quality. The best quality refractory will not perform well if the other factors are not conducive. The effects of various factors, e.g., chemical, redox conditions, attack of liquid phases of clinker, and mechanical and thermo-mechanical stresses, on the refractory performances in kiln and other equipments are discussed at length. The effects of alternate fuels and the degradation of refractory in presence of alkali vapor and oxides of sulfur are discussed at length. The reactions of aluminosilicate refractories in presence of vanadium oxides are discussed. The mechanism of hydration of basic refractories is addressed. The effect of the mechanical factors like ovality, creep, cranking of kiln, etc. on refractory performance and the checking method are discussed in details with diagrams. The effect of overheating, flame character, etc. is discussed in detail. The effect of thermal shock, abrasion of clinker, and high-velocity dust-laden gases on refractories is discussed in details. The reason for Ring formation and build up in the kiln are discussed. The failure of refractories due to anchor failure and the sigma phase embrittlement of stainless steel is discussed in details. The effect of kiln diameter on the chance of falling of bricks from the lining is highlighted. Many photographs are there for different types of refractory damages and failures occur in actual services.


Performance of refractory Flame impingement Improper combustion Hot spots Anchor failure Chemical corrosion Wetting Penetration of liquid Alternate fuel Eutectic Liquid phase Viscosity Alkali attack Melting of salts Sulfur reaction Vanadium reaction Chloride attack Destruction of refractories Spinel Hercynite Mayenite Wustite Monticellite Merwinite Hydration Redox reaction Thermal stress Thermo-mechanical stress Ovality Creep Rosenblad formula Cranking Clinker abrasion Spurrite Sigma phase of stainless steel Schaeffler-De Long diagram 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prasunjit Sengupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical Director of M/S SKG Refractories Ltd.NagpurIndia

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