Refractory Design, Installation, and Maintenance

  • Prasunjit Sengupta


In this chapter the general principle of Refractory lining is discussed with special emphasis on the lining procedure of rotary kiln. The laying of bricks, putting expansion joints, and using of mortar to join bricks are discussed in details. The detail of installation procedures of conventional and low cement castable, the method of shotcreting and gunning, and the placement of castable by pumping method are discussed. The decision-making process about the method of installation to be adopted for placement of castable in any furnace or equipment is discussed at length. Anchor is a very important component of a monolithic refractory lining, and the anchor design and properties of anchor construction material are discussed along with their orientation and fixing methods, at length. The calculation for anchor spacing is shown for horizontal and vertical refractory lining. The drying and preheating of Refractory lining are very important for the successful campaign of refractory lining. The calculation to find out the stress developed in Refractory lining on preheating is shown. The preheating of dense castable is very important because the lot of water is to be removed from the system slowly. The time-temperature schedule of preheating of castable and brick lining is given. The cast lining on long exposure to atmosphere without drying and preheating causes damage to the lining because of carbonation which is discussed in details. Photographs are there to show the damage of lining due to insufficient expansion joint and the effects of carbonation of castable lining.


Reference line Lining thickness Mortar joints Expansion joints Separation joint Conventional castable Low cement castable Installation  Water quality Shotcreting Accelerator Gunning Pump casting Vibro-casting Anchor material Anchor welding Anchor spacing Drying Preheating Carbonation Soluble oxides 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Prasunjit Sengupta
    • 1
  1. 1.Technical Director of M/S SKG Refractories Ltd.NagpurIndia

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