The chapter on cardiovascular disorders contains a review of the common topics seen in pediatric cardiology starting with fetal life, including congenital and acquired diseases. Our topics include a review of frequent conditions that result in referral to a pediatric cardiologist, among which are chest pain, syncope, and palpitations. Also included is a review of fetal physiology and common congenital cardiac defects both acyanotic and cyanotic. Acquired cardiac diseases covered are myocarditis, Kawasaki disease (KD), rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, and dyslipidemia. Each section provides a brief background of the condition and a summary of the clinical presentation as well as physical exam findings and management options. Examples of common electrocardiogram (ECG) findings are included for visualization. Additional pearls are included at the end of the chapter.
KeywordsChest pain Syncope Electrocardiogram (ECG) Arrhythmia Murmur Fetal circulation Cyanotic heart defects Genetics Heart failure Cardiomyopathy Sudden cardiac death Kawasaki disease Myocarditis Tamponade Rheumatic heart disease Endocarditis
The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Joseph Mahgerefteh, MD, and Daphne T. Hsu, MD, both providers in Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, to the first edition of this chapter, many of which have been incorporated into this edition as well.
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