• Grace KungEmail author
  • Allison Hill
  • Jennifer Su


The chapter on cardiovascular disorders contains a review of the common topics seen in pediatric cardiology starting with fetal life, including congenital and acquired diseases. Our topics include a review of frequent conditions that result in referral to a pediatric cardiologist, among which are chest pain, syncope, and palpitations. Also included is a review of fetal physiology and common congenital cardiac defects both acyanotic and cyanotic. Acquired cardiac diseases covered are myocarditis, Kawasaki disease (KD), rheumatic heart disease, endocarditis, and dyslipidemia. Each section provides a brief background of the condition and a summary of the clinical presentation as well as physical exam findings and management options. Examples of common electrocardiogram (ECG) findings are included for visualization. Additional pearls are included at the end of the chapter.


Chest pain Syncope Electrocardiogram (ECG) Arrhythmia Murmur Fetal circulation Cyanotic heart defects Genetics Heart failure Cardiomyopathy Sudden cardiac death Kawasaki disease Myocarditis Tamponade Rheumatic heart disease Endocarditis 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the contributions of Joseph Mahgerefteh, MD, and Daphne T. Hsu, MD, both providers in Pediatric Cardiology, Children’s Hospital at Montefiore, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York, to the first edition of this chapter, many of which have been incorporated into this edition as well.


  1. 1.
    Artman M, Mahony L, Teitel DF, editors. Neonatal cardiology. 3rd ed. New York: McGraw Hill Education/Medical; 2017.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gewitz MH, Baltimore RS, Tani LY, Sable CA, Shulman ST, Carapetis J, American Heart Association Committee on Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, et al. Revision of the Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever in the era of Doppler echocardiography: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(20):1806–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    McCrindle BW, Rowley AH, Newburger JW, Burns JC, Bolger AF, Gewitz M, American Heart Association Rheumatic Fever, Endocarditis, and Kawasaki Disease Committee of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing, Council on Cardiovascular Surgery and Anesthesia, Council on Epidemiology and Prevention, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a scientific statement for health professionals from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2017;135(17):e927–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Suggested Reading

  1. Abdurrahman L, Bockoven JR, Pickoff AS, Ralston MA, Ross JE. Pediatric cardiology update: office-based practice of pediatric cardiology for the primary care provider. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care. 2003;33(10):318–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Blake JM. A teen with chest pain. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2014;61(1):17–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burke RJ, Chang C. Diagnostic criteria of acute rheumatic fever. Autoimmun Rev. 2014;13(4/5):503–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Durani Y, Giordano K, Goudie BW. Myocarditis and pericarditis in children. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2010;57(6):1281–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Expert Panel on Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents. Expert panel on integrated guidelines for cardiovascular health and risk reduction in children and adolescents: summary report. Pediatrics. 2011;128(Suppl 5):S213–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Frank JE, Jacobe KM. Evaluation and management of heart murmurs in children. Am Fam Physician. 2011;84(7):793–800.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hsu DT, Pearson GD. Heart failure in children: Part I: history, etiology, and pathophysiology. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2(1):63–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hsu DT, Pearson GD. Heart failure in children: Part II: diagnosis, treatment, and future directions. Circ Heart Fail. 2009;2(5):490–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Liberthson RR. Sudden death from cardiac causes in children and young adults. N Engl J Med. 1996;334(16):1039–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Maron BJ, Shirani J, Poliac LC, Mathenge R, Roberts WC, Mueller FO. Sudden death in young competitive athletes. Clinical, demographic, and pathological profiles. JAMA. 1996;276(3):199–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Menashe V. Heart murmurs. Pediatr Rev. 2007;28(4):e19–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA, Newburger JW, Takahashi M, Gerber MA, Gewitz MH, Tani LY, Burns JC, et al. Diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki disease: a statement for health professionals from the committee on rheumatic fever, endocarditis and Kawasaki disease, council on cardiovascular disease in the young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2004;110:2747.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Pilcher TA, Saarel EV. Teenage fainter (dizziness, syncope, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome). Pediatr Clin N Am. 2014;61(1):29–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Section on Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery. Pediatric sudden cardiac arrest. Pediatrics. 2012;129(4):e1094–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Silka MJ. Sudden death due to cardiovascular disease during childhood. Pediatr Ann. 1991;20(7):360–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Cardiology, Department of PediatricsChildren’s Hospital of Los Angeles, USC Keck School of MedicineLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations