Advertisement

Fostering Well-being: Spirituality and Creativity in Clinical Practice

  • Letícia Oliveira Alminhana
  • Claude Robert Cloninger
Chapter
Part of the Religion, Spirituality and Health: A Social Scientific Approach book series (RELSPHE, volume 4)

Abstract

Well-being is the fruit of the development of maturity of character. Well-being can be fostered through spiritual development involving the search for self-transcendent meaning in a clinical approach that is creative and person-centered. Since Plato’s Chariot Allegory, well-being is understood not as the absence of impairment, but as a dynamic complex of adaptive systems and causes. In line with both Greek philosophy and neuroscience, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) is an evidence-based model of personality in which maturity of character is the expression of the creative profile (that is, the combination of high self-directedness, cooperativeness and self-transcendence). The development of a creative profile with strong intrinsic conviction about what is spiritually meaningful is the key to flourishing and resilience despite stressful life events and ultimate situations like suffering and death. Consequently, person-centered therapists can develop their own spiritual awareness and creative perspective in order enhance their effectiveness in fostering the well-being of their clients in clinical practice.

Keywords

Spirituality Well-being Maturity Creative profile Temperament Character Flourishing Personality 

References

  1. Alminhana, L. O., Farias, M., Claridge, G., Cloninger, C. R., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2016). How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: Personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences. Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, 0–0.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2016-1944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alminhana, L. O., Farias, M., Claridge, G., Cloninger, C. R., & Moreira-Almeida, A. (2017). Self-directedness predicts quality of life in individuals with psychotic experiences: A 1-year follow-up study. Psychopathology, 50, 239–245.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000474951.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Barch, D. M., Bustillo, J., Gaebel, W., Gur, R., Heckers, S., Malaspina, D., Owen, M. J., et al. (2013). Logic and justification for dimensional assessment of symptoms and related clinical phenomena in psychosis: Relevance to DSM-5. Schizophrenia Research, 150. DSM-5, 15–20.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.04.027.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bayon, C., Hill, K., Svrakic, D. M., Przybeck, T. R., & Cloninger, C. R. (1996). Dimensional assessment of personality in an out-patient sample: Relations of the systems of Millon and Cloninger. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 30, 341–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bora, E., & Veznedaroglu, B. (2007). Temperament and character dimensions of the relatives of schizophrenia patients and controls: The relationship between schizotypal features and personality. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 22, 27–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2006.07.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boys-Stones, G. R. (2001). Post-hellenistic philosophy: A study in its development from the Stoics to Origen (1st ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Claridge, G. (2010). Spiritual experience: Healthy psychoticism? In I. Clarke (Ed.), Psychosis and spirituality (pp. 75–87). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.Google Scholar
  9. Cloninger, C. R. (1994). Temperament and personality. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 266–273.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0959-4388(94)90083-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Cloninger, C. R. (2004). Feeling good: The science of well-being (1st ed.). Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cloninger, C. R. (2010). Religious and spiritual issues in personality disorders. In J. R. Peteet, F. G. Lu, & W. E. Narrow (Eds.), Religious and spiritual issues in psychiatric diagnosis: A research agenda for DSM-V (1st ed.). Arlington: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  12. Cloninger, C. R. (2012). The importance of ternary awareness for overcoming the inadequacies of contemporary psychiatry. Revista de Psiquiatria Clínica, 40, 110–113.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832013000300006.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cloninger, C. R. (2013). What makes people healthy, happy, and fulfilled in the face of current world challenges? Mens Sana Monographs, 11, 16–24.  https://doi.org/10.4103/0973-1229.109288.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Cloninger, C. R., & Cloninger, K. M. (2011). Person-centered therapeutics. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1, 43–52.  https://doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v1i1.21.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. Cloninger, C. R., & Cloninger, K. M. (2013). People create health: Effective health promotion is a creative process. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 3, 114–122.  https://doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v3i2.399.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Cloninger, C. R., & Zohar, A. H. (2011). Personality and the perception of health and happiness. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128, 24–32.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2010.06.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, N. M., & Svrakic, D. M. (1997). Role of personality self-organization in development of mental order and disorder. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 881–906.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Cloninger, C. R., Salloum, I. M., & Mezzich, J. E. (2012). The dynamic origins of positive health and wellbeing. International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 2, 179–187.  https://doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v2i2.213.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Cloninger, C. R., Keady, B., Nigel, L., Kedia, S., & Cloninger, K. M. (2017). Empirical measurement of Plato’s model of the human psyche validation by the neuroscience of personality. In D. Stoyanov (Ed.), Person centered psychiatry (p. 128). London: Springer.Google Scholar
  21. Daneluzzo, E., Stratta, P., & Rossi, A. (2005). The contribution of temperament and character to schizotypy multidimensionality. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 46, 50–55.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2004.07.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Few, L. R., Miller, J. D., Rothbaum, A., Meller, S., Maples, J., et al. (2013). Examination of the Section III DSM-5 diagnostic system for personality disorders in an outpatient clinical sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 122, 1057–1069.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034878.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Fisher, J. E., & Mohanty, A. (2004). Neuropsychological evidence for dimensional schizotypy: Implications for creativity and psychopathology. Journal of Research in Personality, 24–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2003.09.014.Google Scholar
  24. Goncalves, D. M., & Cloninger, C. R. (2010). Validation and normative studies of the Brazilian Portuguese and American versions of the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R). Journal of Affective Disorders, 124, 126–133.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2009.11.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Grucza, R. A., Lewis, R., & Goldberg. (2007). The comparative validity of 11 modern personality inventories: Predictions of behavioral acts, informant reports, and clinical indicators. Journal of Personality Assessment, 89, 167–187.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00223890701468568.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gutiérrez-Zotes, J. A., Cortés, M. J., Valero, J., Peña, J., & Labad, A. (2005). Psychometric properties of the abbreviated Spanish version of TCI-R (TCI-140) and its relationship with the Psychopathological Personality Scales (MMPI-2 PSY-5) in patients. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 33, 231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Herrman, H., Stewart, D. E., Diaz-Granados, N., Berger, E. L., Jackson, B., & Yuen, T. (2011). What is resilience? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 56, 258–265.  https://doi.org/10.1177/070674371105600504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Holt, N. C., Simmonds-Moore, & Moore, S. (2008). Benign schizotypy: Investigating differences between clusters of schizotype on paranormal belief, creativity, intelligence and mental health. In S. Sherwood & S. Sherwood (Eds.), Proceedings of Presented Papers: The Parapsychological Association 51st Annual Convention (pp. 82–96). Columbus: Parapsycholgical Association.Google Scholar
  29. Hori, H., Noguchi, H., Hashimoto, R., Nakabayashi, T., Saitoh, O., & Robin, M. M. (2008). Personality in schizophrenia assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Psychiatry Research, 160, 175–183.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2007.05.015.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Hori, H., Teraishi, T., Sasayama, D., Matsuo, J., Kinoshita, Y., & Ota, M. (2014). A latent profile analysis of schizotypy, temperament and character in a nonclinical population: Association with neurocognition. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 48, 56–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2013.10.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mason, O., & Claridge, G. (2015). Schizotypy: New dimensions. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  32. McCreery, C., & Claridge, G. (2002). Healthy schizotypy: The case of out-of-the-body experiences. Personality and Individual Differences, 32, 141–154.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(01)00013-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Nettle, D., & Clegg, H. (2006). Schizotypy, creativity and mating success in humans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 273, 611–615.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3349.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Norcross, J. C., & Wampold, B. E. (2011). Evidence-based therapy relationships: Research conclusions and clinical practices. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 48, 98–102.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Oldham, J. M. (2015). The alternative DSM-5 model for personality disorders. World Psychiatry, 14, 234–236.  https://doi.org/10.1002/wps.20232.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Os, J. V. (2015). The transdiagnostic dimension of psychosis: Implications for psychiatric nosology and research. Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry, 27, 82–86.  https://doi.org/10.11919/j.issn.1002-0829.215041.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Os, J. V., Gilvarry, C., Bale, R., Horn, E. V., Tattan, T., White, I., & al, e. (1999). A comparison of the utility of dimensional and categorical representations of psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 29, 595–606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Plato. (1952). Plato: Phaedrus. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Schofield, K., & Claridge, G. (2007). Paranormal experiences and mental health: Schizotypy as an underlying factor. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 1908–1916.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2007.06.014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seligman, M. E. (2012). Flourish: A visionary new understanding of happiness and well-being. Reprint edition. New York, NY: Atria Books.Google Scholar
  41. Vangberg, H. C. B., Eisemann, M., Waterloo, K., Richter, J., Rozsa, S., et al. (2013). The Norwegian Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI): An assessment of its psychometric properties. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 54, 904–910.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2013.03.020.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Wagner, E. (2001). Essays on Plato’s psychology. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  43. Wetzel, J. (1992). Augustine and the limits of virtue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Widiger, T. A., & Thomas, A. (2007). Dimensional models of personality disorder. World Psychiatry, 6, 79–83.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Zhu, J., & Thagard, P. (2002). Emotion and action. Philosophical Psychology, 15, 19–36.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09515080120109397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Letícia Oliveira Alminhana
    • 1
  • Claude Robert Cloninger
    • 2
  1. 1.School of PsychologyPontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do SulPorto AlegreBrazil
  2. 2.Washington University Medical SchoolSt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations