Conceptualizing Spirituality and Religiousness
Research on spirituality, religion and health has been growing considerably when analyzing the last 20 years. Much of this research concerns to patients’ opinions and desires on medical treatment, specifically concerning the inclusion of patients’ spiritual/religious issues and how it can influence the health outcome. However, there is still a lack of consensus about the definition of spirituality, and this need might affect the analysis of how the term “spiritual” have been understood by patients and health care providers, and how spirituality might affect patients’ mental and physical health. Nowadays, researchers debate about how is the best way to understand spirituality, and if is possible to standardize the conceptualization of this concept. Two important schools of thought debate what is the best way to understand spirituality scientifically. The first group supports the inclusive (comprehensive) conceptualization, and the second support the narrow (or religious) idea of spirituality. Trough this chapter we will discuss both conceptual frameworks and also reinforce our idea about religion, and how it can influence our understanding of spirituality, especially on the twenty-first century.
KeywordsSpirituality Religion Conceptualization Definition Health
- Azevedo, C. (2010). A procura do conceito de Religio: entre o relegere e o religare. Religare, 7(1), 90–96.Google Scholar
- Chirico, F. (2016). Spiritual well-being in the 21st century: It’s time to review the current WHO’s health definition? Journal of Health and Social Sciences, 1(1), 11–16.Google Scholar
- Damiano, R. F., Costa, L. A., Moreira-Almeida, A., Lucchetti, A. L. G., & Lucchetti, G. (2016). Brazilian scientific articles on “Spirituality, Religion and Health”. Archives of Clinical Psychiatry, 43(1), 11–16.Google Scholar
- Durkheim, E. (1912). The elementary forms of the religious life. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- King, M. B., & Koenig, H. G. (2009). Conceptualizing spirituality for medical research and health service provision. BMC Health Services Research. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-9-116.
- Koenig, H. G. (2013). Spirituality in patient care: Why, how, when, and what – 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Templeton Press.Google Scholar
- Koenig, H. G., Meador, K., & Parkerson, G. (1997). Religion index for psychiatry research: A 5-item measure for use in health outcome studies. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 885–886.Google Scholar
- Koenig, H. G., King, D. E., & Carson, V. B. (Eds.). (2012). Handbook of religion and health: A century of research reviewed (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Lucchetti, G., Granero, A. L., Bassi, R. M., Latorraca, R., & NAcif, S. A. P. (2010). Spirituality in clinical practice: What should the general practitioner know? Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Clínica Médica, 8(2), 154–158.Google Scholar
- Online Etymology Dictionary. http://www.etymonline.com. Accessed 25 Jun 2017.
- Oxford Living Dictionary. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com. Accessed 25 Jun 2017.
- Smith, W. C. (1998). Faith and belief: The difference between them. London: Oneworld Publications.Google Scholar
- Weber, M. (1922). The sociology of religion. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (WHO). (1946). Constitution of WHO: Principles. http://www.who.int/about/who_reform/en/. Accessed 16 Apr 2017.