Functional Endoscopic Sphenoethmoidectomy
Functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) basically refers to provide adequate drainage of the diseased sinuses for the treatment of the chronic rhinosinusitis and nasal polyps. The extent of surgery varies according to the extent of the disease. A popular hypothesis for the development of chronic rhinosinusitis is that environmental factors, such as allergens, viruses, or air pollutants, stimulate the epithelium to induce local inflammation of the sinus mucosa. FESS targets to reverse the pathophysiology of the disease. FESS for chronic rhinosinusitis was introduced in the 1980s and is now one of the most commonly performed otorhinolaryngological procedures. FESS was elaborated by Messerklinger together with his assistant Stammberger and Wigand in Europe and has become the standard surgical treatment for chronic rhinosinusitis. Messerklinger described that even minimal inflammation localized in the critical region can be the etiology of generalized paranasal sinus pathology. Mucosal inflammation results to deterioration of the mucociliary clearance and lead to the stasis of the secretions and bacterial proliferation. Chronic sinusitis is a persisting inflammatory condition of one or more sinuses lasting beyond 12 weeks. Medical therapy should always be prior to surgery and when medical therapy fails, FESS should be considered. In this chapter, functional endoscopic sphenoethmoidectomy is reviewed.
KeywordsFunctional endoscopic sphenoethmoidectomy Functional endoscopic sinus surgery Chronic rhinosinusitis Nasal polyps Treatment
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