Advertisement

Epidemiology of Allergic Rhinitis

  • Ramazan Öçal
  • Nuray Bayar Muluk
  • Joaquim Mullol
Chapter

Abstract

Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a worldwide health-related issue having an effect on 10–20% of the entire population, hence causing AR to be the most prevalent chronic non-communicable disorder. Thus, the financial burden of AR with important direct and indirect expenses should not be underrated. Numerous components in the environmental surroundings make contributions to the creation of allergic diseases (for instance, antibiotics, immunizations, cigarette smoke, pets, and diet); however, it is hard to understand the way of changing the surroundings to lessen the potential risks. In birth cohorts, environmental exposure may be assessed by studying the complex gene-environment interactions. AR usually starts following 2 years of age, but the actual prevalence in early life is not known. AR impacts on 10–30% of the population, seen most commonly in children and adolescents. It looks like the prevalence has risen in children. While the child’s immune system evolves through the first and fourth year of life, individuals with an atopic predisposition start to exhibit allergic disorder showing an obvious Th2 response to allergen exposure, producing symptoms. The prevalence of AR varies between 3 and 19% as documented by the epidemiologic studies carried out in several countries. Data suggest SAR (hay fever) is identified in roughly 10% of the normal population while perennial rhinitis (PAR) is seen in 10–20% of the normal population. In this chapter, the epidemiology of allergic rhinitis is presented.

Keywords

Allergic rhinitis Epidemiology Antibiotics Immunizations Cigarette smoke Pets Diet 

References

  1. 1.
    Hellings P. Allergic rhinitis. In: Akdis CA, Agache I, editors. Global atlas of allergy. Published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; 2014. p. 178–9. http://www.eaaci.org/resources/global-atlas-of-allergy.html. Accessed online on 7 July 2015.
  2. 2.
    Custovic A. Birth cohorts. In: Akdis CA, Agache I, editors. Global atlas of allergy. Published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; 2014. p. 116–8. http://www.eaaci.org/resources/global-atlas-of-allergy.html. Accessed online on 7 July 2015.
  3. 3.
    Fereidouni M, Hossini RF, Azad FJ, Assarehzadegan MA, Varasteh A. Skin prick test reactivity to common aeroallergens among allergic rhinitis patients in Iran. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2009;37:73–9.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geller-Bernstein C, Zaharan Y, Waisel Y. Sensitivity to olea Europaea pollen in different populations in Israel. Allerg Immunol (Paris). 1994;26:318–9.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Al-Dowaisan A, Fakim N, Khan MR, et al. Salsola pollen as a predominant cause of respiratory allergies in Kuwait. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2004;92:262–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Behbehani N, Arifhodzic N, Al-Mousawi M, et al. The seasonal variation in allergic rhinitis and its correlation with outdoor allergens in Kuwait. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;133:164–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sattar HA, Mobayed H, Al-Mohammed AA, et al. The pattern of indoor and outdoor respiratory allergens in asthmatic adult patients in a humid and desert newly developed country. Eur Ann Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;35:300–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Can IH, Islam A, Karasoy DS, Samim EE. Does regional pollen load affect the prevalence of clinical allergy to those pollen groups? J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:297–301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Erkara IP, Cingi C, Ayranci U, Gurbuz KM, Pehlivan S, Tokur S. Skin prick test reactivity in allergic rhinitis patients to airborne pollens. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;151:401–12.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Türe C, Böcük H. Analysis of airborne pollen grains in Bilecik, Turkey. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;151:27–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mösges R, Klimek L. Today’s allergic rhinitis patients are different: new factors that may play a role. Allergy. 2007;62:969–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kong WJ, Chen JJ, Zheng ZY, Shi QM, Zhou Y. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in 3-6-year-old children in Wuhan of China. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:869–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leung R, Jenkins M. Asthma, allergy and atopy in southern Chinese school students. Clin Exp Allergy. 1994;24:353–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leung R, Ho P. Asthma, allergy, and atopy in three south-east Asian populations. Thorax. 1994;49:1205–10.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lau YL, Karlberg J. Prevalence and risk factors of childhood asthma, rhinitis and eczema in Hong Kong. J Paediatr Child Health. 1998;34:47–52.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Katelaris CH, Lai CK, Rhee CS, Lee SH, Yun WD, Lim-Varona L, Quang VT, Hwang J, Singh H, Kim J, Boyle JM, Dhong HJ, Narayanan P, Vicente G, Blaiss M, Sacks R. Nasal allergies in the Asian-Pacific population: results from the Allergies in Asia-Pacific Survey. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25(Suppl 1):S3–15.  https://doi.org/10.2500/ajra.2011.25.3674.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Neffen H, Mello JF Jr, Sole D, Naspitz CK, Dodero AE, Garza HL, Guerra EN, Baez-Loyola C, Boyle JM, Wingertzahn MA. Nasal allergies in the Latin American population: results from the Allergies in Latin America survey. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2010;31(Suppl 1):S9–27.  https://doi.org/10.2500/aap.2010.31.3347. Epub 2010 June 16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cingi C, Songu M, Ural A, Annesi-Maesano I, Erdogmus N, Bal C, Kahya V, Koc EA, Cakir BO, Selcuk A, Ozlugedik S, Onal K, Midilli R, Ecevit C, Pinar E, Akoglu E, Okuyucu S, Erkan AN. The score for allergic rhinitis study in Turkey. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2011;25(5):333–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sih T, Mion O. Allergic rhinitis in the child and associated comorbidities. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21:e107–13.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mygind N, Anggard A, Druce H. Definition, classification, and terminology. In: Mygind N, Weeke B, editors. Allergic and vasomotor rhinitis. Copenhagen: Munksgaard; 1985. p. 15.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Linna O, Kokkonen J, Lukin M. A 10-year prognosis for childhood allergic rhinitis. Acta Paediatr. 1992;81:100–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Evans R. Epidemiology and natural history of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis (eczema). In: Middleton E, Reed C, Ellis E, editors. Allergy: principles and practice. 4th ed. St Louis: Mosby; 1993. p. 1109–36.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wright AL, Holberg CJ, Martinez FD, Halonen M, Morgan W, Taussig LM. Epidemiology of physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis in childhood. Pediatrics. 1994;94:895–901.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Aberg N, Engstrom I. Natural history of allergic diseases in children. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990;79:206–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tang RB, Tsai LC, Hwang HM, Hwang B, Wu KG, Hung MW. The prevalence of allergic disease and IgE antibodies to house dust mite in schoolchildren in Taiwan. Clin Exp Allergy. 1990;20:33–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Schachter J, Higgins MW. Median age at onset of asthma and allergic rhinitis in Tecumseh, Michigan. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1976;57:342–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Aberg N. Familial occurrence of atopic disease: genetic vs environmental factors. Clin Exp Allergy. 1993;23:829–43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gerrard JW, Vickers P, Gerrard CD. The familial incidence of allergic disease. Ann Allergy. 1976;36:10–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Fireman P. Allergic rhinitis. In: Fireman P, Slavin R, editors. Atlas of allergies. Philadelphia: JB Lippincott Co.; 1991. p. 902–18.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Meltzer EO. The prevalence and medical and economic impact of allergic rhinitis in the United States. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1997;99:S805–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Singh K, Axelrod S, Bielory L. The epidemiology of ocular and nasal allergy in the United States, 1988-1994. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126:778.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wu WF, Wan KS, Wang SJ, et al. Prevalence, severity, and time trends of allergic conditions in 6-to-7-year-old schoolchildren in Taipei. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2011;21:556.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Meltzer EO, Blaiss MS, Derebery MJ, et al. Burden of allergic rhinitis: results from the Pediatric Allergies in America survey. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:S43.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Abdulrahman H, Hadi U, Tarraf H, et al. Nasal allergies in the Middle Eastern population: results from the “Allergies in Middle East Survey”. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2012;26(Suppl 1):S3.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    US Department of Health and Human Services. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Management of allergic and non-allergic rhinitis. May 2002. AHQR publication 02:E023, Boston. Summary, Evidence Report/Technology Assessment: No 54. http://www.ahrq.gov/clinic/epcsums/rhinsum.htm. Accessed 3 Aug 2007.
  36. 36.
    Settipane RA. Demographics and epidemiology of allergic and nonallergic rhinitis. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2001;22:185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Romano-Zelekha O, Graif Y, Garty BZ, et al. Trends in the prevalence of asthma symptoms and allergic diseases in Israeli adolescents: results from a national survey 2003 and comparison with 1997. J Asthma. 2007;44:365.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lima RG, Pastorino AC, Casagrande RR, et al. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in 6 - 7 years old students from the western districts of São Paulo City, using the standardized questionnaire of the “International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood” (ISAAC)-phase IIIB. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2007;62:225.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kong WJ, Chen JJ, Zheng ZY, et al. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in 3-6-year-old children in Wuhan of China. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:869.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Abong JM, Kwong SL, Alava HD, et al. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis in Filipino adults based on the National Nutrition and Health Survey 2008. Asia Pac Allergy. 2012;2:129.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zar HJ, Ehrlich RI, Workman L, Weinberg EG. The changing prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic eczema in African adolescents from 1995 to 2002. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18:560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Vichyanond P, Jirapongsananuruk O, Visitsuntorn N, Tuchinda M. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and eczema in children from the Bangkok area using the ISAAC (International Study for Asthma and Allergy in Children) questionnaires. J Med Assoc Thail. 1998;81:175.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kabir ML, Rahman F, Hassan MQ, et al. Asthma, atopic eczema and allergic rhino-conjunctivitis in school children. Mymensingh Med J. 2005;14:41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mallol J, Crane J, von Mutius E, et al. The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) Phase Three: a global synthesis. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). 2013;41:73.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    deShazo RD, Kemp SF. Allergic rhinitis: clinical manifestations, epidemiology, and diagnosis. In: Corren J, editors. UpToDate. http://www.uptodate.com/contents/allergic-rhinitis-clinical-manifestations-epidemiology-and-diagnosis. Accessed online on 7 July 2015.
  46. 46.
    Bauchau V, Durham SR. Prevalence and rate of diagnosis of allergic rhinitis in Europe. Eur Respir J. 2004;24(5):758–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kurt E, Metintas S, Basyigit I. Prevalence and risk factors of allergy in Turkey (PARFAIT): results of a study in adults multicenter cross-sectional. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2007;18(7):566–74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cingi C, Topuz B, Songu M, Kara CO, Ural A, Yaz A, Yildirim M, Miman MC, Bal C. Prevalence of allergic rhinitis among the adult population in Turkey. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130(5):600–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Aberg N. Asthma and allergic rhinitis in Swedish conscripts. Clin Exp Allergy. 1989;19:59–63.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Rimpela AH, Savonius B, Rimpela MK, Haahtela T. Asthma and allergic rhinitis among Finnish adolescents in 1977–1991. Scand J Soc Med. 1995;23:60–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Newacheck PW, Stoddard JJ. Prevalence and impact of multiple childhood chronic illnesses. J Pediatr. 1994;124:40–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lau S. Natural history of allergy. In: Akdis CA, Agache I, editors. Global atlas of allergy. Published by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; 2014. p. 119–20. http://www.eaaci.org/resources/global-atlas-of-allergy.html. Accessed online on 7 July 2015.
  53. 53.
    Wayne P, Foster S, Connolly J, Bazzaz F, Epstein P. Production of allergenic pollen by ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) is increased in CO2-enriched atmospheres. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2002;88:279–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Jones AM, Harrison RM. The effects of meteorological factors on atmospheric bioaerosol concentrations—a review. Sci Total Environ. 2004;326:151–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Matheson MC, Dharmage SC, Abramson MJ, et al. Early-life risk factors and incidence of rhinitis: results from the European Community Respiratory Health Study—an international population-based cohort study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128:816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Skoner DP. Allergic rhinitis: definition, epidemiology, pathophysiology, detection, and diagnosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2001;108(1 Suppl):S2–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kucukoduk S, Aydin M, Cetinkaya F, Dinç H, Gürses N, Saraçlar Y. The prevalence of asthma and other allergic diseases in a province of Turkey. Turk J Pediatr. 1996;38:149–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Mavale-Manuel S, Joaquim O, Macome C, et al. Asthma and allergies in school children of Maputo. Allergy. 2007;62:265–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    World Allergy Organization. Disease summaries. Rhinitis: synopsis. www.worldallergy.org. http://www.worldallergy.org/professional/allergic_diseases_center/rhinitis/rhinitissynopsis.php#epidemiology. Accessed online at 7 July 2015.
  60. 60.
    Katelaris CH, Lee BW, Potter PC, Maspero JF, Cingi C, Lopatin A, Saffer M, Xu G, Walter RD. Prevalence and diversity of allergic rhinitis in regions of the world beyond Europe and North America. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42(2):186–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bhattacharyya N. Incremental healthcare utilization and expenditures for allergic rhinitis in the United States. Laryngoscope. 2011;121:1830.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    D’Alonzo GE Jr. Scope and impact of allergic rhinitis. J Am Osteopath Assoc. 2002;102:S2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Woods L, Craig TJ. The importance of rhinitis on sleep, daytime somnolence, productivity and fatigue. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 2006;12:390.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schatz M, Zeiger RS, Chen W, et al. The burden of rhinitis in a managed care organization. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2008;101:240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Colás C, Brosa M, Antón E, Montoro J, Navarro A, Dordal MT, Dávila I, Fernández-Parra B, Ibáñez MDP, Lluch-Bernal M, Matheu V, Rondón C, Sánchez MC, Valero A, Rhinoconjunctivitis Committee of the Spanish Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Estimate of the total costs of allergic rhinitis in specialized care based on real-world data: the FERIN Study. Allergy. 2017;72(6):959–66.  https://doi.org/10.1111/all.13099. Epub 2017 Jan 22.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Torrance GW. Preferences for health outcomes and cost-utility analysis. Am J Manag Care. 1997;(Suppl 3):S8.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Ray NF, Baraniuk JN, Thamer M, et al. Direct expenditures for the treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in 1996, including the contributions of related airway illnesses. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999;103:401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Bender BG. Cognitive effects of allergic rhinitis and its treatment. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2005;25:301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Soni A. Allergic rhinitis: trends in use and expenditures, 2000 to 2005. Statistical Brief #204. Bethesda: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; 2008.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    McMenamin P. Costs of hay fever in the United States in 1990. Ann Allergy. 1994;73:35–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Vuurman EF, van Veggel LM, Uiterwijk MM, Leutner D, O’Hanlon JF. Seasonal allergic rhinitis and antihistamine effects on children’s learning. Ann Allergy. 1993;71:121–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Frew AJ. Advances in environmental and occupational diseases 2003. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2004;113:1161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Watson WT, Becker AB, Simons FE. Treatment of allergic rhinitis with intranasal corticosteroids in patients with mild asthma: effect on lower airway responsiveness. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1993;91:97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Saulyte J, Regueira C, Montes-Martínez A, et al. Active or passive exposure to tobacco smoking and allergic rhinitis, allergic dermatitis, and food allergy in adults and children: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2014;11:e1001611.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramazan Öçal
    • 1
  • Nuray Bayar Muluk
    • 2
  • Joaquim Mullol
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OtorhinolaryngologyUniversity of Health Sciences, Ankara Training and Research HospitalAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical FacultyKırıkkale UniversityKırıkkaleTurkey
  3. 3.Unitat de Rinologia and Clínica de l’Olfacte, Servei d’Otorinolaringologia, Hospital ClínicUniversitat de Barcelona, Immunoal·lèrgia Respiratòria Clínica i Experimental (IDIBAPS), CIBERESBarcelonaSpain

Personalised recommendations