Acute Invasive Fungal Rhinosinusitis

  • Ahmet Emre Süslü
  • Oğuz Öğretmenoğlu
  • David W. Kennedy


Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis (AIFR) is defined as the mycotic invasion of the mucosa and blood vessels of the sinonasal mucosa. Due to the rapid destruction and fatal consequences caused by the disease, some authors prefer the term fulminant fungal rhinosinusitis over AIFR. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential in AIFR as the mortality could result in 50–80% of unoperated cases. A critically important key to the management of AIFR is the ability to reverse the underlying immunosuppression. The disease is mainly seen in patients with compromised immune status, rendering them unable to cope with AIFR and they are already in lower health conditions with worse prognoses because of accompanying comorbidities. The increasing incidence of AIFR in recent years could be due to an increased number of patients with compromised immunity. New medical developments, more effective chemotherapeutics, life-long immunosuppression following solid organ and bone marrow transplantation have taken their toll on the risk of developing AIFR. Malnutrition, poor glycemic control, excess iron storage seen in hematological disorders could also be listed as additional predisposing factors for AIFR. In the treatment of AIFR, aggressive surgical debridement, intravenous antifungal therapy, and reversal of the immunosuppressed condition are considered as the major components. The aim of this section is to give information about AIFR, touching upon its microbiology, histopathology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment in general.


Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis Immunosuppression Mycotic invasion Mucosa Blood vessels 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmet Emre Süslü
    • 1
  • Oğuz Öğretmenoğlu
    • 2
  • David W. Kennedy
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical FacultyHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.ENT SpecialistAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Perelman School of Medicine, University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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