The Evaluation of the Nose, Nasal Cavity and Airway

  • Kazım Bozdemir
  • Hakan Korkmaz
  • Christine B. Franzese


Congestion of the nasal passages, which frequently arises from the interaction of several different processes concerned with blood flow and inflammation can occasion obstruction of the airways ranging from moderate to severe. The nasal cycle consists in the physiological switching of congested and decongested states, reflecting shifts in nasal blood volume, in normal individuals. Assessment of nasal patency when the nose is congested is typically only needed in a clinical setting where either surgery is being contemplated or the patient’s main issue is a result of moderate or severe nasal obstruction. In an ideal world, any test for the patency of the nose would have the following characteristics: straightforward, readily interpretable, valid for a reasonable period and with excellent cost-effectiveness, possessing a standard implementation, non-invasive, swift and reproducible, giving detailed information and capable of being used with all patients. In the real world, the tests allowing objective appraisal at the clinician’s disposal are rhinomanometry, peak nasal inspiratory flow (PNIF) and acoustic rhinometry (AR). Lately, four-phase rhinomanometry (4PR) has joined the other older techniques in clinical application. There is a need for objectivity in the testing of nasal patency arising from medicolegal, diagnostic and documentary purposes. At the current time, three such objective techniques exist: active anterior rhinomanometry (AAR), 4PR and AR. There have been a number of overviews of the field, setting down the area of interest and the technological limitations. In this chapter, all of them were presented.


Nose Nasal cavity Airway Active anterior rhinomanometry Four-phase rhinomanometry Acoustic rhinometry 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kazım Bozdemir
    • 1
  • Hakan Korkmaz
    • 1
  • Christine B. Franzese
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Medical FacultyYıldırım Beyazıt UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck SurgeryUniversity of MissouriColumbiaUSA

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