• Ranko Mladina


Once upon a time, there was a Homo erectus with a humanoid head and two dark holes over his upper lip. One million years ago, or even more, the owner of the head had just slowly started to become bipedal, spending more and more time of the day in an erectile position. It was much easier and quicker to take a look around than to climb on tree branches to see what is going on in the vicinity and onwards. Still, there were two dark holes over the upper lip. These two holes were entrances to the nasal cavities. So, once upon a time, there was a nose. According to anthropologic studies and archeological findings, nasal cavities in Homo erectus have been very large, in any case larger than they are in a modern man. This might suggest the importance of both breathing and respiratory roles of the nose once upon a time. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the deformities of the bony parts of the nasal septum which could have been usable and helpful for the study and reconstruction of the possible nasal septal deformities. Nowadays nasal septal deformities have been classified (e.g. Mladina classfication). This introduction chapter will serve both experienced colleagues dealing with the nose in their everyday practice and those who are at the very beginning of their career.


Nose Homo erectus Nasal cavities Nasal septal deformities Mladina classification 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ranko Mladina
    • 1
  1. 1.ENT DepartmentUniv. Hospital Center ZagrebZagrebCroatia

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