Dealing with Difference: Pedagogy in Divided Societies

  • Helen Hanna
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Global Citizenship Education and Democracy book series (GCED)


This chapter is the second of three chapters on research findings, analyses and discussions. It begins by discussing the varying degrees of important placed on dealing with difference to the schools in both jurisdictions. It then considers the aims of dealing with difference (learning about difference, learning to accept difference and learning to challenge stereotypes) followed by the pedagogical challenges (freedom of expression and non-bias). The penultimate section of the chapter compares findings from Northern Ireland and Israel. The final part of the chapter maps the findings onto the 2-A framework of an ‘acceptable’ and ‘adaptable’ education, highlighting some of the challenges and contradictions in the understandings of these terms between groups and individuals. Particularly, problematic terms in this case are the requirements that education be good quality, acceptable, non-discriminatory and flexible to the needs of an individual student.


Difference Learn Accept Challenge Stereotypes Freedom of expression Non-bias 



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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Hanna
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of International and Comparative EducationEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

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