Advertisement

Introduction

  • Helen Hanna
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Global Citizenship Education and Democracy book series (GCED)

Abstract

This chapter offers an introduction to the topic of citizenship, citizenship education and the particular challenges faced when dealing with these entities in divided society impacted by conflict. It sets itself against the background of ongoing disputes over ethno-national identity in Northern Ireland and Israel, which were live at the time of the research and which continue to today. It introduces the research on which this book is based and its methods. It introduces the key themes of the findings, which relate to minority group representation and the curriculum content, dealing with difference and the pedagogy of citizenship education, and aims in terms of preparing young people for life in a divided society. It highlights the uniqueness of the book in terms of its qualitative, comparative element. Finally, the chapter sets out the aims and objectives of the book and provides an outline of what it will discuss.

Keywords

Identity Ethno-national Divided society Comparison Citizenship Citizenship education 

References

Literature

  1. Ahronheim, A. (2019, January 25). One Killed, 22 Injured in Clashes Along the Gaza-Israel Border. Jerusalem Post [online]. Available at https://www.jpost.com/Arab-Israeli-Conflict/10000-Palestinians-demonstrate-in-Gaza-Kochavi-arrives-at-the-border-578655. Last accessed 11 March 2019.
  2. Alderson, P. (1995). Listening to Children: Children, Social Research and Ethics. London: Barnardos.Google Scholar
  3. Al-Haj, M. (2002). Multiculturalism in Deeply Divided Societies: The Israeli Case. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 26(2), 169–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London, UK: Verso.Google Scholar
  5. Apple, M. W. (1982). Common Curriculum and State Control. The Australian Journal of Education Studies, 2(2), 1–10.Google Scholar
  6. Apple, M. W. (1993). The Politics of Official Knowledge: Does a National Curriculum Make Sense? Discourse, 14(1), 1–16.Google Scholar
  7. Bacon, K., & Frankel, S. (2014). Rethinking Children’s Citizenship: Negotiating Structure, Shaping Meanings. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 21, 1–20.Google Scholar
  8. Barton, K., & McCully, A. (2010). “You Can Form Your Own Point of View”: Internally Persuasive Discourse in Northern Ireland Students’ Encounters with History. The Teachers College Record, 112(1), 142–181.Google Scholar
  9. Bekerman, Z., Zembylas, M., & McGlynn, C. (2009). Working Toward the De-Essentialization of Identity Categories in Conflict and Postconflict Societies: Israel, Cyprus, and Northern Ireland. Comparative Education Review, 53(2), 213–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ben-Nun, M. (2013). The 3Rs of Integration: Respect, Recognition and Reconciliation; Concepts and Practices of Integrated Schools in Israel and Northern Ireland. Journal of Peace Education, 10(1), 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bourdieu, P., & Passeron, J. C. (1990). Reproduction in Education, Society and Culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). (2012, December 3). Violence in Belfast After Council Votes to Change Union Flag Policy. BBC News [Online]. Available at http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-northern-ireland-20587538. Last accessed 18 December 2013.
  13. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). (2019, January 20). Four Arrests Over Reckless Attack. BBC News [Online]. Available at https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-northern-ireland-46937061. Last accessed 11 March 2019.
  14. Bryman, A. (2012). Social Research Methods (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Buckland, P. (2005). Reshaping the Future: Education and Postconflict Reconstruction. Washington, DC: World Bank Publications.Google Scholar
  16. Bulmer, M., & Rees, A. M. (1996). Citizenship Today: The Contemporary Relevance of T.H. Marshall. London: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  17. Bush, K. D., & Saltarelli, D. (2000). The Two Faces of Education in Ethnic Conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Insight.Google Scholar
  18. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing Grounded Theory: A Practical Guide Through Qualitative Analysis. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  19. Cockburn, T. (1998). Children and Citizenship in Britain: A Case for a Socially Interdependent Model of Citizenship. Childhood, 5(1), 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cohen, A. (2010). A Theoretical Model of Four Conceptions of Civic Education. Canadian Social Studies, 44(1), 17–28.Google Scholar
  21. Cohen, A. (2013). Conceptions of Citizenship and Civic Education: Lessons from Three Israeli Civics Classrooms (PhD thesis). New York: Columbia University Academic Commons.Google Scholar
  22. Cornbleth, C. (1984). Beyond Hidden Curriculum? Journal of Curriculum Studies, 16(1), 29–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Crossley, M., (2000). Bridging Cultures and Traditions in the Reconceptualisation of Comparative and International Education. Comparative Education, 36(3), 319–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crossley, M., & Broadfoot, P. (1992). Comparative and International Research in Education: Scope, Problems and Potential. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 18(2), 99–112.Google Scholar
  25. Crossley, M., & Watson, K. (2003). Comparative and International Research in Education: Globalisation, Context and Difference. Abingdon, Oxon: RoutledgeFalmer.Google Scholar
  26. Donnelly, C., & Hughes, J. (2006). Contact, Culture and Context: Evidence from Mixed Faith Schools in Northern Ireland and Israel. Comparative Education, 42(4), 493–516.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Firer, R. (1998). Human Rights in History and Civics Textbooks: The Case of Israel. Curriculum Inquiry, 28, 199–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gallagher, T. (2004). Education in Divided Societies. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gidron, B., Katz, S. N., & Hasenfeld, Y. (2002). Mobilizing for Peace: Conflict Resolution in Northern Ireland, Israel/Palestine, and South Africa. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Graham-Brown, S. (1994). The role of the Curriculum. In Minority Rights Group (Ed.), Education Rights and Minorities. London: Minority Rights Group International.Google Scholar
  31. Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1989). Fourth Generation Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  32. Guelke, A. (1994). The Peace Process in South Africa, Israel and Northern Ireland: A Farewell to Arms? Irish Studies in International Affairs, 5, 93–106.Google Scholar
  33. Harris, K. (1999). Aims! Whose Aims? In R. Marples (Ed.), Aims of Education. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Hess, D. E. (2002). Discussing Controversial Public Issues in Secondary Social Studies Classrooms: Learning from Skilled Teachers. Theory and Research in Social Education, 30(1), 10–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hess, D. E. (2004). Controversies About Controversial Issues in Democratic Education. Political Science and Politics, 37(2), 257–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Higginson, J. (1979). Selections from Michael Sadler. Liverpool: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  37. Hughes, J., Blaylock, D., & Donnelly, C. (2015). Does Social Deprivation Influence Inter-group Contact Outcomes for Pupils in Northern Ireland? Ricerche di Pedagogia e Didattica—Journal of Theories and Research in Education, 10(1), 47–65.Google Scholar
  38. Invernizzi, A., & Williams, J. (2008). Introduction. In A. Invernizzi & J. Williams (Eds.), Children and Citizenship. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  39. Jackson, P. (1968). Life in Classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  40. Johnson, R. (1991). A New Road to Serfdom: A Critical History of the 1988 Act. In Education Group II (Cultural Studies Birmingham) (Ed.), Education Limited: Schooling and Training and the New Right Since 1979. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  41. Kerr, D. (1999). Citizenship Education in the Curriculum: An International Review. School Field, 10(3/4), 5–32.Google Scholar
  42. Knox, C., & Quirk, P. (2000). Peace Building in Northern Ireland, Israel and South Africa: Transition, Transformation and Reconciliation. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. Marker, G., & Mehlinger, H. (1992). Social studies. In P. W. Jackson (Ed.), Handbook of Research on Curriculum. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  44. McCowan, T. (2010). Reframing the Universal Right to Education. Comparative Education, 46(4), 509–525.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. McCully, A. (2005). Teaching Controversial Issues in a Divided Society: Learning from Northern Ireland. Prospero, 11(4), 38–46.Google Scholar
  46. McLaughlin, T. (2003). Teaching Controversial Issues in Citizenship Education. In A. Lockyer, B. Crick, & J. Annette (Eds.), Education for Democratic Citizenship. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  47. Nesher, T. (2012, August 6). Israel Education Ministry Fires Civic Studies Coordinator Attacked by Right. Haaretz. Available at http://www.haaretz.com/print-edition/news/israel-education-ministry-fires-civics-studies-coordinator-attacked-by-right-1.456182. Last accessed 01 April 2019.
  48. Niens, U., & McIlrath, L. (2010). Understandings of Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland: Public Discourses Among Stakeholders in the Public And Private Sectors. Education, Citizenship and Social Justice, 5(1), 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Niens, U., O’Connor, U., & Smith, A. (2013). Citizenship Education in Divided Societies: Teachers’ Perspectives in Northern Ireland. Citizenship Studies, iFirst Article, 17(1), 1–14.Google Scholar
  50. Noah, H. J. (1984). The Use and Abuse of Comparative Education. Comparative Education Review, 28(4), 550–562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Osler, A., & Starkey, H. (2003). Learning for Cosmopolitan Citizenship: Theoretical Debates and Young People’s Experiences. Educational Review, 55(3), 243–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Osler, A., & Starkey, H. (2010). Teachers and Human Rights Education. London: Trentham.Google Scholar
  53. Parker, W. C. (2008). Knowing and Doing in Democratic Citizenship Education. In L. Levstik & C. Tyson (Eds.), Handbook of Research in Social Studies Education. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Partnership Management Board. (2007). Learning for Life and Work for Key Stage Three. Belfast: CCEA.Google Scholar
  55. Podeh, E. (2000). History and Memory in the Israeli Educational System: The Portrayal of the Arab-Israeli Conflict in History Textbooks (1948–2000). History and Memory, 12(1), 65–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Postlethwaite, T. N. (1988). The Encyclopedia of Comparative Education and National Systems of Education. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  57. Prout, A., & James, A. (1997). A New Paradigm for the Sociology of Childhood? Provenance, Promise and Problems. In A. James & J. Prout (Eds.), Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood: Contemporary Issues in the Sociological Study of Childhood. London: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  58. Qvortrup, J. (1994). Childhood matters: An introduction. In J. Qvortrup, M. Bardy, G. Sgritta, & H. Wintersberger (Eds.), Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics. Aldershot: Avebury Press.Google Scholar
  59. Roche, J. (1999). Children: Rights, Participation and Citizenship. Childhood, 6(4), 475–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Smith, N., Lister, R., Middleton, S., & Cox, L. (2005). Young People as Real Citizens: Towards an Inclusionary Understanding of Citizenship. Journal of Youth Studies, 8(4), 425–443.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Smooha, S. (1997). The Viability of Ethnic Democracy as a Mode of Conflict-Management: Comparing Israel and Northern Ireland. In T. Endelman (Ed.), Comparing Jewish Societies (pp. 267–312). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  62. Stradling, B. (1985). Controversial Issues in the Curriculum. Bulletin of Environmental Education, 170, 9–13.Google Scholar
  63. Tatar, M. (2004). Diversity and Citizenship Education in Israel. In J. Banks (Ed.), Diversity and Citizenship Education: Global Perspectives. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  64. Ten Dam, G., & Volman, M. (2004). Critical Thinking as a Citizenship Competence: Teaching Strategies. Learning and Instruction, 14(4), 359–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Tomaševski, K. (2001). Human Rights Obligations: Making Education Available, Accessible, Acceptable and Adaptable: Right to Education Primers no. 3. Gothenburg: Novum Grafiska AB.Google Scholar
  66. Torney-Purta, J. (2002a). The School’s Role in Developing Civic Engagement: A Study of Adolescents in Twenty-Eight Countries. Applied Developmental Science, 6(4), 203–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Torney-Purta, J. (2002b). Patterns in the Civic Knowledge, Engagement, and Attitudes of European Adolescents: The IEA Civic Education Study, European Journal of Education, 37(2), 129–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Torney-Purta, J., Lehmann, R., Oswald, H., & Schulz, W. (2001). Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Amsterdam: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement.Google Scholar
  69. Verhellen, E. (2000). Children’s Rights and Education. In A. Osler (Ed.), Schools: Diversity, Identity, Equality. Trentham: Stoke-on-Trent.Google Scholar
  70. Watson, K. (1999). Comparative Educational Research: The Need for Reconceptualisation and Fresh Insights. Compare, 29(3), 233–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Helen Hanna
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of International and Comparative EducationEast China Normal UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations