Advertisement

Noose Knots: Data Paralysis and Oppressive Psychological Tactics

  • Donald E. Grant Jr.
Chapter

Abstract

Noose Knots identifies and illustrates the risk and protective factors in the contemporary ecological systems of each nation (US, UK, France and Canada). This chapter assesses the current behavioral health and mental wellness outcome data (special education, substance abuse, exposure to trauma, employment rates, school attrition rates, incarceration rates, etc.) and links them to ecological risk factors generated by each nation’s participation in the Transatlantic Slave Trade and the colonization of Africa and other territories. An exploration of psychological phenomenon associated with oppressive forces (learned helplessness, stereotype threat, disidentification, self-fulfilling prophecy, racial stress, stigma, bias and access) contextualizes the data presented. This chapter ends by connecting the risk and protective factors to the statistical outcomes illustrated in biological and ecological markers (hair cortisol concentrations, cancer, diabetes, leading causes of death) along with an exploration of the dangers associated with frequent misdiagnoses (ASD, ODD, ADHD, IED and CD) and the etiological practices behind them.

References

  1. Abell, J., Stadler, T., Ferrie, J., Shelby, M., Kirschbaum, C., Kivmaki, M., et al. (2016). Assessing Cortisol from Hair Samples in a Large Observational Cohort: The Whitehall II Study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 73, 148–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adler, B. (1968). He Wisdom of Martin Luther King; In His Own Words. New York: Lancer Books.Google Scholar
  3. Alonso, A., Krijthe, B., Aspelund, T., Stepas, K., Pencina, M., Moser, et al. (2013). Simple Risk Model Predicts Incidence of Atrial Fibrillation in a Racially and Geographically Diverse Population: The CHARGE-AF Consortium. Journal of the American Heart Association, 2(2), e000102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. American Council on Education. (2012). By the Numbers. More Black Men in Prison Than in College? Think Again. Retrieved from https://www.acenet.edu/the-presidency/columns-and-features/Pages/By-the-Numbers-More-Black-Men-in-Prison-Than-in-College-Think-Again-.aspx
  5. American Psychological Association. Understanding Chronic Stress. Retrieved from https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/understanding-chronic-stress
  6. Arday, J. (2018). Understanding Mental Health: What Are the Issues for Black and Ethnic Minority Students at University? Social Sciences, 7, 196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bulhan, H. (2015). Stages of Colonialism in Africa: From Occupation of Land to Occupation of Being. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 3(1), 239–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Caetano, R. (2003). Alcohol-Related Health Disparities and Treatment—Related Epidemiological Findings Among Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in the United States. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experiential Research, 27(8), 1337–1339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Canadian Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics at a Glance. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.ca/en/cancer-information/cancer-101/cancer-statistics-at-a-glance/?region=ab
  10. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). (n.d.) Health Equity Leading Causes of Death (LCOD) by Age Group. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthequity/lcod/men/2014/Black/index.htm
  11. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Prescription Painkiller Overdoses. Retrieved form https://www.cdc.gov/vitalsigns/prescriptionpainkilleroverdoses/index.html
  12. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). United States Cancer Statistics: Data Visualizations. Retrieved form https://gis.cdc.gov/cancer/USCS/DataViz.html
  13. Croizet, J.-C., Depres, G., & Gauzins, M.-E. (2004). Stereotype Threat Undermines Intellectual Performance by Triggering an Disruptive Mental Load. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(6), 721–731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Crosby, F., & Van de Veer, C. (Eds.). (2000). Sex, Race, and Merit: Debating Affirmative Action in Education and Employment. Ann Arbor, MI: The University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  15. Desmond-Harris, J. (2015). The Myth That There Are More Black Men in Prison Than in College, Debunked in One Chart. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2015/2/12/8020959/Black-men-prison-college
  16. Fite, P., Wyn, P., & Pardini, D. (2009). Explaining Discrepancies in Arrest Rates Between Black and White Male Juveniles. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(5), 916–927.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ford, D. (2016). Don’t Rush to Saddle Children with the ADHD Label. New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/roomfordebate/2016/02/01/is-the-adhd-diagnosis-helping-or-hurting-kids/dont-rush-to-saddle-children-with-the-adhd-label
  18. Frontlines (PBS). A Social History of America’s Most Popular Drugs. Retrieved from https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/drugs/buyers/socialhistory.html
  19. Grand, J. (2016). Brain Drain? An Examination of Stereotype Threat Effects During Training on Knowledge Acquisition and Organizational Effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(2), 115–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grant, Jr., D. E. (2013). Black Suicide When Prayer Isn’t Enough. Ebony Magazine. Retrieved from https://www.ebony.com/health/Black-suicide-when-prayer-is-not-enough-405/
  21. Halimi, S., Zmirou, D., Benhamou, P. Y., Balducci, F., Zaoui, P., Magihlaoua, M., et al. (1999). Huge Progression of Diabetes Prevalence and Incidence Among Dialysed Patients in Mainland France and Overseas French Territories. A Second National Survey Six Years Apart. (Uremidiab 2 Study). Diabetes & Metabolism, 25, 507–512.Google Scholar
  22. Henley, P., Jahedmotlagh, Z., Thomas, S., Darnell, R., Jacobs, D., Johnson, J., et al. (2013). Hair Cortisol as a Biomarker of Stress Among a First Nation in Canada. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 35(5), 595–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hockenbury, D., & Hockenbury, S. (2004). Psychology. New York: Worth Publishers.Google Scholar
  24. Hoffman, K., Trawalter, S., Axt, J., & Oliver, M. N. (2016). Racial Bias in Pain Assessment and Treatment Recommendations, and False Beliefs About Biological Differences Between Blacks and Whites. PNAS, 113(16), 4296–4301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hollingsworth, L. D., Patton, D., Allen, P., & Johnson, K. (2018). Racial Microaggressions in Social Work Education: Black Students’ Encounters in a Predominantly White Institution. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 1, 95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Honora, D. (2003). Urban African American Adolescents and School Identification. Urban Education, 38, 58–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Justice Policy Institute. (2002). Cellblocks or Classroom: The Funding of Higher Education and Corrections and Its Impact on African American Men. Retrieved from http://www.justicepolicy.org/uploads/justicepolicy/documents/02-09_rep_cellblocksclassrooms_bb-ac.pdf
  28. Kaiser Permanente. (2013). Kaiser Permanente Study Finds Childhood Diagnosis of ADHD Increased Dramatically Over Nine-Year Period. Retrieved from https://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/kaiser-permanente-study-finds-childhood-diagnosis-of-adhd-increased-dramatically-over-nine-year-period-187780921.html
  29. Kenyon, P. (1994). Depression and Learned Helplessness. In Study and Learning Material On-Line (SALMON). Devon: University of Pennsylvania.Google Scholar
  30. Kogan, S. M., Cho, J., Oshri, A., & Mackillop, J. (2017). The Influence of Substance Abuse on Depressive Symptoms Among Young Adult Black Men: The Sensitizing Effect of Early Adversity. The American Journal of Addiction, 26, 400–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Larry, P. v Riles. NO C-71-2270 RFP. 495 F. Supp. 926. United States District Court, N. D. California.Google Scholar
  32. Littlejohns, T., Travis, R., Key, T., & Allen, N. (2016). Lifestyle Factors and Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) Testing in UK Biobank: Implications for Epidemiological Research. International Journal of Cancer Epidemiology, Detection, and Prevention, 45, 40–46.Google Scholar
  33. Livingstone Smith, D. (2011). Less Than Human: Why We Demean, Enslave, and Exterminate Others. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  34. Mandell, D. S., Ittenbach, R. F., Levy, S. E., & Pinto-Martin, J. A. (2006). Disparities in Diagnoses Received Prior to a Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 37(9), 1795–1802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mantovani, N., Pizzolati, M., & Edge, D. (2017). Exploring the Relationship Between Stigma and Help-Seeking for Mental Illness in African-Descended Faith Communities in the UK. Health Expectations, 20(3), 373–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Memon, A., Taylor, K., Mohebati, L., Sundin, J., Cooper, M., Scanion, T., et al. (2016). Perceived Barriers to Accessing Mental Health Service Among Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) Communities: A Qualitative Study in Southeast England. BJM Open, 6(11), e012337.Google Scholar
  37. Merl, J. (1991). Court Ban on IQ Tests for Blacks Sparks Parents’ Suit. LA Times. Retrieved from http://articles.latimes.com/1991-08-05/news/mn-139_1_iq-test
  38. Metzl, J. (2010). The Protest Psychosis: How Schizophrenia Became a Black Disease. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  39. Mills, A. J., Durepos, G., & Wiebe, E. (2010). Encyclopedia of Case Study Research (Vol. 1-0). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Morgan, P., Staff, J., Hillemeier, M., Farkas, G., & Maczuga, S. (2013). Racial and Ethnic Disparities in ADHD Diagnosis from Kindergarten to Eighth Grade. Pediatrics, 132(1), 85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Narconon. Heroin History 1900’s. Retrieved from https://www.narconon.org/drug-information/heroin-history-1900s.html
  42. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2017). Pain Management and the Opioid Epidemic: Balancing Societal and Individual Benefits and Risks of Prescription Opioid Use. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  43. National Alliance on Mental Illness. African American Mental Health. Retrieved from https://www.nami.org/Find-Support/Diverse-Communities/African-Americans
  44. Nderitu, P., Van Hemelrijck, M., Ashworth, M., Mathur, R., Hull, S., Dudek, A., et al. (2016). Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing in Inner London General Practices: Are Those at Higher Risk Most Likely to Get Tested? BMJ Open, 6(7), e011356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Punjani, N., Flannigan, R., Oliffe, J. L., McCreary, D. R., Black, N., & Larry Goldenberg, S. (2018). Unhealthy Behaviors Among Canadian Men Are Predictors of Comorbidities: Implications for Clinical Practice. American Journal of Men’s Health, 12(6), 2183–2193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Quijano, A., & Ennis, M. (2000). Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism and Latin America in Nepantla: Views from South 1(3) (pp. 533–580). London: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  47. Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1966). Teachers’ Expectations: Determinates of Pupils’ IQ Gains. Psychological Reports, 19, 115–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Russell, E., Koren, G., Rieder, M., & Van Uum, S. H. (2014). The Detection of Cortisol in Human Sweat: Implications for Measurement of Cortisol in Hair. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 36(1), 30–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Scharff, D., Matthews, K., Jackson, P., Hoffsuemmer, J., Emeobong, M., & Edwards, D. (2010). More Than Tuskegee: Understanding mistrust about research participation. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 21(3), 879–897. Johns Hopkins University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Schwartz, R., & Blankenship, D. (2014). Racial Disparities in Psychotic Disorder Diagnosis: A Review of Empirical Literature. World Journal of Psychiatry, 4(4), 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Shields, K. (1997). The Conflicts of Learned Helplessness in Motivation. San Jose State University. Retrieved from http://ematusov.soe.udel.edu/final.paper.pub/_pwfsfp/00000062.htm
  52. Soerjomataram, I., Sheild, K., Marant-Micallef, C., Vignat, J., Hill, C., Rogel, A., et al. (2018). Cancers Related to Lifestyle and Environmental Factors in France in 2015. European Journal of Cancer, 105, 103–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Spanakis, E. K., & Golden, S. H. (2013). Race/Ethnic Difference in Diabetes and Diabetic Complications. Current Diabetes Reports, 13(6), 814–823.Google Scholar
  54. Stamos, T., & Darbar, D. (2016). The “Double” Paradox of Atrial Fibrillation in Black Individuals. Journal of American Medicine Cardiology, 1(4), 377–379.Google Scholar
  55. Steele, C. M. (1997). A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance. American Psychologist, 52(6), 613–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Stinson, F. S., Grant, B. F., & Dufour, M. C. (2001). The Critical Dimension of Ethnicity in Liver Cirrhosis Mortality Statistics. Alcoholics Clinical Experimental Research, 25(8), 1181–1187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. The Anti-Slavery Monthly. (1828). On the Demoralizing Influence of Slavery. Reporter, Jun.1825–Dec.1831, 2(32), 176.Google Scholar
  58. Thomas, M. (1986). The Use of Expectancy Theory and the Theory of Learned Helplessness in Building Strengths of Ethnic Minorities: The Black Experience in the United States. International Journal for the Achievement of Counseling, 9(4), 371–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Toldson, I. (2013). More Black Men in Jail Than in College? Wrong. The Root. Retrieved from https://www.theroot.com/more-Black-men-in-jail-than-in-college-wrong-1790895415
  60. Tron, L., Dejardin, O., Launoy, G., & Beot, A. (2019). Socioeconomic Environment and Disparities in Cancer Survival for 19 Solid Tumor Sites: An Analysis of the French Network of Cancer Registries (FRANCIM) Data. International Journal of Cancer, 144(6), 1262–1274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Diabetes and African Americans. Retrieved from https://minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=4&lvlid=18
  62. Vasilenko, S., Evans-Polce, R., & Lanza, S. (2018). Age Trends in Rates of Substance Use Disorders Across Ages 18–90: Differences by Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 180(2017), 260–264.Google Scholar
  63. Veenstra, G., & Patterson, C. (2016). Black-White Health Inequalities in Canada. Journal of Immigrant Minority Health, 18, 51–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wheeler, P., Stevens-Watkins, D., Knighton, J. S., Mahaffey, C., & Lewis, D. (2018). Pre-incarceration Rates of Nonmedical Use of Prescription Drugs Among Black Men from Urban Communities. Journal of Urban Health, 95(4), 444–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Wyatt, T., Brown, G., Brown, M., Dabney, M., Wiley, O., & Weddington, G. (2003). The Assessment of African American Children. California Speech-Language and Hearing Association Task Force.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Donald E. Grant Jr.
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Mindful Training SolutionsLos AngelesUSA
  2. 2.Pacific Oaks CollegePasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations