Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion L1–2, L2–3
Lateral lumbar interbody fusion at the L1–L2 or L2–L3 levels may be indicated for adjacent segment failure, anterior longitudinal ligament release, deformity surgery, scoliosis correction, and corpectomy due to tumor, trauma, infection, or deformity. Although the L2–L3 level is considered one of the most easily and safely accessed levels utilizing the lateral trans-psoas approach, the L1–L2 level, however, can be one of the most challenging lumbar levels due to the proximity to the diaphragmatic crus and thoracic cavity and due to the lower ribs interfering with a direct, in-line exposure. This chapter discusses the background, indications, anatomy, imaging, neuromonitoring, surgical technique, and postoperative care associated with the lateral approach to the most cephalad levels of the lumbar spine.
KeywordsLateral lumbar interbody fusion Lumbar spine Infradiaphragmatic retroperitoneal Retropleural Degenerative disc disease Adjacent segment disease
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