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In Planta Synthesis of Nanomaterials for Environmental Remediation

  • Reshma V. Patil
  • Kiran D. Pawar
Chapter

Abstract

In recent years, the convergence between biology and nanotechnology has created the new field of “nanobiotechnology” that incorporates the use of biological entities such as bacteria, fungi, and plants in a number of processes for nanomaterial synthesis. Synthesis of nanoparticles using biological means, especially plants, is biocompatible as they produce functional biomolecules which actively reduce metal ions into nanoparticles. Moreover, plants as a biological agent are eco-friendly, and the plant-mediated biogenic reaction of nanoparticle synthesis usually involves organic compounds like flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, polyphenols, etc. These phytochemicals act as reducing and capping agents and react with metal ions to create a metal nanoparticle. The plants and their extracts have been used successfully in the synthesis of various nanoparticles such as Ag, Au, Co, Cu, Pd, Pt, ZnO, and Fe2O3. Besides numerous applications of biogenic nanoparticles, they can also be used for remediation of soil and water contaminated with heavy metals and organic and inorganic pollutants. The present chapter gives a brief account of plant-mediated biogenic synthesis of nanoparticles, plant metabolites involved, the mechanism of nanoparticle synthesis, and applications of biogenic nanoparticles in environmental cleanup and remediation.

Keywords

Biological entities Biogenic nanoparticles Plant metabolites Environmental remediation 

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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Reshma V. Patil
    • 1
  • Kiran D. Pawar
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Nanoscience and Biotechnology, Shivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia

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