Impact of Biotic and Abiotic Stresses on Plants, and Their Responses

  • Bilal Ahmad
  • Aamir Raina
  • Samiullah Khan


The rapid increase in population growth and drastic climatic change remain challenging threats to agricultural crops, which are grown in diversified environments with both biotic and abiotic stresses. Diverse environmental stress conditions such as drought, heat, salinity, cold, or pathogenic infections are detrimental to plant growth and development. Plants grown under field conditions face a combination of different separate or concurrent abiotic and biotic stresses and in response plants employ diverse set of genes to alleviate the devastating impact on growth and development. Both conventional and biotechnological approaches of plant breeding are employed to reduce climate induced stresses in a wide range of crops. The development of diverse biophysiological and molecular markers has recently been employed for induction of stress tolerance in various crops. The introduction of modern genetic techniques plays a vital role in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of biological stress tolerance. In this chapter, we provide an update on the stress combinations occurring in nature, their impact on plant growth, response of plants to stresses, complex interactions in stress combinations, combined drought and pathogen stress tolerance and role of genomics in developing crops with combined drought and pathogen stress tolerance.


Markers Abiotic Biotic stress Plant breeding 


  1. Abd El-Rahim MF, Fahmy GM, Fahmy ZM (1998) Alterations in transpiration and stem vascular tissues of two maize cultivars under conditions of water stress and late wilt disease. Plant Pathol 47:216–223. Scholar
  2. Ahmad B, Raina A, Naikoo MI, Khan S (2019) Role of methyl jasmonates in salt stress tolerance in crop plants. In: Plant Signalling Molecules (Eds Khan MIR, Reddy PS, Ferrante A, Khan NA). Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford, United Kingdom pp. 371–384. Scholar
  3. Aldahadha AMA (2012) Effect of root diseases and drought on water use efficiency of wheat. Doctoral thesis, University of New England, ArmidaleGoogle Scholar
  4. Allah AA, Shimaa A, Zayed B, Gohary AE (2010) The role of root system traits in the drought tolerance of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Int J Agric Biol Sci 1:83–87Google Scholar
  5. Anjum SA, Wang LC, Farooq M, Hussain M, Xue LL, Zou CM (2011) Brassinolide application improves the drought tolerance in maize through modulation of enzymatic antioxidants and leaf gas exchange. J Agron Crop Sci 197:177–185. Scholar
  6. Armstrong-Cho C, Gossen BD (2005) Impact of glandular hair exudates on infection of chickpea by Ascochyta rabiei. Can J Bot 83:22–27. Scholar
  7. Atkinson NJ, Lilley CJ, Urwin PE (2013) Identification of genes involved in the response to simultaneous biotic and abiotic stress. Plant Physiol 162:2028–2041. Scholar
  8. Balota M, Rush CM, Payne WA, Lazar MD (2005) The effect of take-all disease on gas-exchange rates and biomass in two winter wheat lines with different drought response. Plant Soil 275:337–348. Scholar
  9. Barber SA (1995) Soil nutrient bioavailability: a mechanistic approach., 2nd edn. Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Barnes JD, Davison AW (1988) The influence of ozone on the winter hardiness of Norway Spruce [Picea abies (L) Karst]. New Phytol 108:159–166. Scholar
  11. Belisario A, Maccaroni M, Corazza L, Balmas V, Valier A (2002) Occurrence and etiology of brown apical necrosis on Persian (English) walnut fruit. Plant Dis 86:599–602. Scholar
  12. Bernier J, Serraj R, Kumar A, Venuprasad R, Impa S, Veereshgowda RP, Oane R, Spaner D, Atlin G (2009) The large-effect drought-resistance QTL qtl12.1 increases water uptake in upland rice. Field Crop Res 110(2):139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Berta G, Sampo S, Gamalero E, Massa N, Lemanceau P (2005) Suppression of Rhizoctonia root-rot of tomato by Glomus mossae BEG12 and Pseudomonas fluorescens A6RI is associated with their effect on the pathogen growth and on the root morphogenesis. Eur J Plant Pathol 111:279–288. Scholar
  14. Bloomer RH, Lloyd AM, Symonds VV (2014) The genetic architecture of constitutive and induced trichome density in two new recombinant inbred line populations of Arabidopsis thaliana: phenotypic plasticity, epistasis, and bidirectional leaf damage response. BMC Plant Biol 14:119. Scholar
  15. Blum A (2009) Effective use of water (EUW) and not water-use efficiency (WUE) is the target of crop yield improvement under drought stress. Field Crop Res 112:119–123. Scholar
  16. Blum A, Shpiler L, Golan G, Mayer J (1989) Yield stability and canopy temperature of wheat genotypes under drought-stress. Field Crop Res 22:289–296. Scholar
  17. Brown JKM, Hovmoller MS (2002) Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burman U, Lodha S (1996) Macrophomina phaseolina induced changes in plant water relations of resistant and susceptible cowpea genotypes. Indian Phytopathol 49:254–259Google Scholar
  19. Calo L, García I, Gotor C, Romero LC (2006) Leaf hairs influence phytopathogenic fungus infection and confer an increased resistance when expressing a Trichoderma α-1,3-glucanase. J Exp Bot 57:3911–3920. Scholar
  20. Camejo D, Rodriguez P, Morales MA, Dell’amico JM, Torrecillas A, Alarcon JJ (2005) High temperature effects on photosynthetic activity of two tomato cultivars with different heat susceptibility. J Plant Physiol 162:281–289. Scholar
  21. Carter AH, Chen XM, Garland-Campbell K, Kidwell KK (2009) Identifying QTL for high temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Louise’. Theor Appl Genet 119:1119–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Choi HK, Alberto I, Francisco GS, Douglas C (2013) Water deficit modulates the response of Vitis vinifera to the Pierce’s disease pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 26:1–46. Scholar
  23. Choudhary A, Pandey P, Senthil-Kumar M (2016) Tailored responses to simultaneous drought stress and pathogen infection in plants. In: Hossain MA, Wani SH, Bhattacharjee S, Burritt DJ, Tran L-SP (eds) Drought stress tolerance in plants, vol Vol 1. Springer, Cham, pp 427–443. Scholar
  24. Coakley SM, Scherm H, Chakraborty S (1999) Climate change and plant disease management. Annu Rev Phytopathol 37:399–426. Scholar
  25. Comas LH, Becker SR, Cruz VMV, Byrne PF, Dierig DA (2013) Root traits contributing to plant productivity under drought. Front Plant Sci 4:442. Scholar
  26. Daami-Remadi M, Souissi A, Oun HB, Mansour M, Nasraoui B (2009) Salinity effects on Fusarium wilt severity and tomato growth. Dyn Soil Dyn Plant 3:61–69Google Scholar
  27. Daryanto S, Wang L, Jacinthe PA (2016) Global synthesis of drought effects on maize and wheat production. PLoS One 11:e0156362. Scholar
  28. Dow RL, Powell NL, Porter DM (1988) Effects of modification of the plant canopy environment on Sclerotinia blight of peanut. Peanut Sci 15:1–5. Scholar
  29. Dryden P, Van Alfen NK (1984) Soil moisture, root system density, and infection of roots of pinto beans by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli under dryland conditions. Phytopathology 74:132–135. Scholar
  30. Duniway J, Durbin R (1971) Detrimental effect of rust infection on the water relations of bean. Plant Physiol 48(1):69–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Duniway JM (1977) Predisposing effect of water stress on the severity of Phytophthora root rot in safflower. Phytopathology 67:884–889. Scholar
  32. Dutta S, Mohanty S, Tripathy BC (2009) Role of temperature stress on chloroplast biogenesis and protein import in pea. Plant Physiol 150:1050–1061. Scholar
  33. Ehleringer J, Björkman O, Mooney HA (1976) Leaf pubescence: effects on absorptance and photosynthesis in a desert shrub. Science 192(4237):376–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Eyal Z, Blum A (1989) Canopy temperature as a correlative measure for assessing host response to Septoria tritici blotch of wheat. Plant Dis 73:468–471. Scholar
  35. Farooq M, Gogoi N, Barthakur S, Baroowa B, Bharadwaj N, Alghamdi SS, Siddique KH (2017) Drought stress in grain legumes during reproduction and grain filling. J Agron Crop Sci 203(2):81–102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fitz Gerald JN, Lehti-Shiu MD, Ingram PA, Deak KI, Biesiada T, Malamy JE (2006) Identification of quantitative trait loci that regulate Arabidopsis root system size and plasticity. Genetics 172:485–498. Scholar
  37. Garrett KA, Dendy SP, Frank EE, Rouse MN, Travers SE (2006) Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems. Annu Rev Phytopathol 44:489–509. Scholar
  38. Giuliani S, Sanguineti MC, Tuberosa R, Bellotti M, Salvi S, Landi P (2005) Root-ABA1, a major constitutive QTL, affects maize root architecture and leaf ABA concentration at different water regimes. J Exp Bot 56:3061–3070. Scholar
  39. Gonzalez-Dugo MP, Moran MS, Mateos L, Bryant R (2005) Canopy temperature variability as an indicator of crop water stress severity. Irrig Sci 24:233–240. Scholar
  40. Goudarzi S, Banihashemi Z, Maftoun M (2011) Effect of salt and water stress on root infection by Macrophomina phaseolina and ion composition in shoot in sorghum. Iran J Plant Pathol 47:69–83Google Scholar
  41. Grammatikopoulos G, Manetas Y (1994) Direct absorption of water by hairy leaves of Phlomis fruticosa and its contribution to drought avoidance. Can J Bot 72(12):1805–1811CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gupta A, Dixit SK, Senthil-Kumar M (2016) Drought stress predominantly endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae infection. Front Plant Sci 7:808PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Hameed M, Mansoor U, Ashraf M, Rao AUR (2002) Variation in leaf anatomy in wheat germplasm from varying drought-hit habitats. Int J Agric Biol 4:12–16Google Scholar
  44. Hatmi S, Gruau C, Trotel-Aziz P, Villaume S, Rabenoelina F, Baillieul F et al (2015) Drought stress tolerance in grapevine involves activation of polyamine oxidation contributing to improved immune response and low susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea. J Exp Bot 66:775–787. Scholar
  45. Higginbotham RW, Paulitz TC, Kidwell KK (2004) Virulence of Pythium species isolated from wheat fields in eastern Washington. Plant Dis 88:1021–1026. Scholar
  46. Huang B, Rachmilevitch S, Xu J (2012) Root carbon and protein metabolism associated with heat tolerance. J Exp Bot 63:3455–3465. Scholar
  47. Jackson RD (1986) Remote sensing of biotic and abiotic plant stress. Annu Rev Phytopathol 24:265–287. Scholar
  48. Jäger K, Fábián A, Tompa G, Deák C, Höhn M, Olmedilla A, Barnabás B, Papp I (2011) New phenotypes of the drought-tolerant cbp20 Arabidopsis thaliana mutant have changed epidermal morphology. Plant Biol 13(1):78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Jenks MA, Joly RJ, Peters PJ, Rich PJ, Axtell JD, Ashworth EN (1994) Chemically induced cuticle mutation affecting epidermal conductance to water vapor and disease susceptibility in Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. Plant Physiol 105:1239–1245. Scholar
  50. Kamilova F, Kravchenko LV, Shaposhnikov AI, Makarova N, Lugtenberg B (2006) Effects of the tomato pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp radicis-lycopersici and of the biocontrol bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens WCS365 on the composition of organic acids and sugars in tomato root exudate. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 19:1121–1126. Scholar
  51. Kim KS, Park SH, Jenks MA (2007) Changes in leaf cuticular waxes of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) plants exposed to water deficit. J Plant Physiol 164(9):1134–1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Király L, Hafez YM, Fodor J, Király Z (2008) Suppression of tobacco mosaic virus–induced hypersensitive-type necrotization in tobacco at high temperature is associated with downregulation of NADPH oxidase and superoxide and stimulation of dehydroascorbate reductase. J Gen Virol 89:799–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kosma DK, Bourdenx B, Bernard A, Parsons EP, Lü S, Joubès J, Jenks MA (2009) The impact of water deficiency on leaf cuticle lipids of Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 151(4):1918–1929CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kroumova AB, Shepherd RW, Wagner GJ (2007) Impacts of T-phylloplanin gene knockdown and of Helianthus and Datura phylloplanins on Peronospora tabacina spore germination and disease potential. Plant Physiol 144(4):1843–1851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kudela V (2009) Potential impact of climate change on geographic distribution of plant pathogenic bacteria in Central Europe. Plant Prot Sci 45:S27–S32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lacape J-M, Nguyen TB (2005) Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with leaf and stem pubescence in cotton. J Hered 96:441–444. Scholar
  57. Ladanyi M, Horvath L (2010) A review of the potential climate change impact on insect populations—general and agricultural aspects. Appl Ecol Environ Res 8:143–152. Scholar
  58. Lai A, Cianciolo V, Chiavarini S, Sonnino A (2000) Effects of glandular trichomes on the development of Phytophthora infestans infection in potato (S. tuberosum). Euphytica 114:165–174. Scholar
  59. Lamichhane JR, Venturi V (2015) Synergisms between microbial pathogens in plant disease complexes: a growing trend. Front Plant Sci 6:385. Scholar
  60. Liu X, Liu C (2016) Effects of drought-stress on Fusarium crown rot development in barley. PLoS One 11(12):e0167304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Loreto F, Bongi G (1989) Combined low temperature–high light effect on gas-exchange properties of jojoba leaves. Plant Physiol 91:1580–1585. Scholar
  62. Lynch JP, Chimungu JG, Brown KM (2014) Root anatomical phenes associated with water acquisition from drying soil: targets for crop improvement. J Exp Bot 65:6155–6166. Scholar
  63. Mahalingam R (2015) Consideration of combined stress: a crucial paradigm for improving multiple stress tolerance in plants. In: Mahalingam R (ed) Combined stresses in plants. Springer International Publishing, Cham. Scholar
  64. Marcell LM, Beattie GA (2002) Effect of leaf surface waxes on leaf colonization by Pantoea agglomerans and Clavibacter michiganensis. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 15(12):1236–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Maron JL, Crone E (2006) Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth. Proc R Soc B 273:2575–2584CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Maron JL, Kauffman M (2006) Habitat-specific consumer impacts on plant population dynamics. Ecology 87:113–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin JT (1964) Role of cuticle in the defense against plant disease. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2:81–100. Scholar
  68. Mayek-Perez N, Garcia-Espinosa R, Lopez-Castaneda C, Acosta-Gallegos JA, Simpson J (2002) Water relations, histopathology and growth of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during pathogenesis of Macrophomina phaseolina under drought stress. Physiol Mol Plant Pathol 60:185–195. Scholar
  69. McDonald A, Riha S, DiTommasob A, DeGaetanoa A (2009) Climate change and the geography of weed damage: analysis of US maize systems suggests the potential for significant range transformations. Agric Ecosyst Environ 130:131–140. Scholar
  70. McElrone AJ, Sherald JL, Forseth IN (2003) Interactive effects of water stress and xylem-limited bacterial infection on the water relations of a host vine. J Exp Bot 54(381):419–430CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Mittler R (2006) Abiotic stress, the field environment and stress combination. Trends Plant Sci 11:15–19. Scholar
  72. Monier JM, Lindow SE (2003) Differential survival of solitary and aggregated bacterial cells promotes aggregate formation on leaf surfaces. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:15977–15982. Scholar
  73. Mordecai EA (2011) Pathogen impacts on plant communities: unifying theory, concepts, and empirical work. Ecol Monogr 81:429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Narsai R, Wang C, Chen J, Wu J, Shou H, Whelan J (2013) Antagonistic, overlapping and distinct responses to biotic stress in rice (Oryza sativa) and interactions with abiotic stress. BMC Genomics 14:93. Scholar
  75. Niakoo MI, Dar MI, Raghib F, Jaleel H, Ahmad B, Raina A, Khan FA, Naushin F (2019) Role and regulation of plants phenolics in abiotic stress tolerance: an overview. In: Plant Signalling Molecules (Eds Khan MIR, Reddy PS, Ferrante A, Khan NA). Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Duxford, United Kingdom pp. 157–168. Scholar
  76. Nguyen TTX, Dehne H-W, Steiner U (2016) Maize leaf trichomes represent an entry point of infection for Fusarium species. Fungal Biol 120(8):895–903CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Oerke E, Steiner U, Dehne H, Lindenthal M (2006) Thermal imaging of cucumber leaves affected by downy mildew and environmental conditions. J Exp Bot 57(9):2121–2132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pandey P, Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M (2015) Shared and unique responses of plants to multiple individual stresses and stress combinations: physiological and molecular mechanisms. Front Plant Sci 6:723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Papp I, Mur L, Dalmadi A, Dulai S, Koncz C (2004) A mutation in the cap binding protein 20 gene confers drought. Plant Mol Biol 55(5):679–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Patterson DT (1995) Effects of environmental stress on weed/crop interaction. Weed Sci 43:483–490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Paul N, Ayres P (1984) Effects of rust and post-infection drought on photosynthesis, growth and water relations in groundsel. Plant Pathol 33(4):561–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pautasso M, Döring TF, Garbelotto M, Pellis L, Jeger MJ (2012) Impacts of climate change on plant diseases—opinions and trends. Eur J Plant Pathol 133:295–313. Scholar
  83. Pennypacker B, Leath K, Hill R (1991) Impact of drought stress on the expression of resistance to Verticillium albo-atrum in alfalfa. Phytopathology 81(9):1014–1024CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Peters K, Breitsameter L, Gerowitt B (2014) Impact of climate change on weeds in agriculture: a review. Agric Sustain Dev 34:707–721. Scholar
  85. Pinter PJ, Stanghellini ME, Reginato RJ, Idso SB, Jenkins AD, Jackson RD (1979) Remote detection of biological stresses in plants with infrared thermometry. Science 205:585–586. Scholar
  86. Pouzoulet J, Pivovaroff AL, Santiago LS, Rolshausen PE (2014) Can vessel dimension explain tolerance toward fungal vascular wilt diseases in woody plants? Lessons from Dutch elm disease and esca disease in grapevine. Front Plant Sci 5:253. Scholar
  87. Prasch CM, Sonnewald U (2013) Simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus to Arabidopsis plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks. Plant Physiol 162(4):1849–1866. Scholar
  88. Puckette MC, Weng H, Mahalingam R (2007) Physiological and biochemical responses to acute ozone-induced oxidative stress in Medicago truncatula. Plant Physiol Biochem 45:70–79. Scholar
  89. Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M (2015) The interactive effects of simultaneous biotic and abiotic stresses on plants: mechanistic understanding from drought and pathogen combination. J Plant Physiol 176:47–54. Scholar
  90. Ramegowda V, Senthil-Kumar M, Ishiga Y, Kaundal A, Udayakumar M, Mysore KS (2013) Drought stress acclimation imparts tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Pseudomonas syringae in Nicotiana benthamiana. Int J Mol Sci 14:9497–9513CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rivero RM, Mestre TC, Mittler R, Rubio F, Garcia-Sanchez F, Martinez V (2014) The combined effect of salinity and heat reveals a specific physiological, biochemical and molecular response in tomato plants. Plant Cell Environ 37:1059–1073. Scholar
  92. Roy BA, Stanton ML, Eppley SM (1999) Effects of environmental stress on leaf hair density and consequences for selection. J Evol Biol 12:1089–1103. Scholar
  93. Scherm H, Coakley SM (2003) Plant pathogens in a changing world. Australas Plant Pathol 32:157–165. Scholar
  94. Schroth MN, Hildebrand DC (1964) Influence of plant exudates on root-infecting fungi. Annu Rev Phytopathol 2:101–132. Scholar
  95. Shamsudin NAA, Swamy BM, Ratnam W, Cruz MTS, Raman A, Kumar A (2016) Marker assisted pyramiding of drought yield QTLs into a popular Malaysian rice cultivar, MR219. BMC Genet 17(1):30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Sharma RC, Duveiller E, Ortiz-Ferrara G (2007) Progress and challenge towards reducing wheat spot blotch threat in the Eastern Gangetic Plains of South Asia: is climate change already taking its toll? Field Crop Res 103:109–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Simoes-Araujo JL, Rumjanek NG, and Margis-Pinheiro M (2003) Small heat shock proteins genes are differentially expressed in distinct varieties of common bean. Braz J Plant Physiol 15:33–41. Scholar
  98. Sinha R, Gupta A, Senthil-Kumar M (2016) Understanding the impact of drought on foliar and xylem invading bacterial pathogen stress in chickpea. Front Plant Sci 7:902. Scholar
  99. Sinha R, Gupta A, Senthil-Kumar M (2017) “Concurrent drought stress and vascular pathogen infection induce common and distinct transcriptomic responses in chickpea.” Frontiers in Plant Science 8(2017):333Google Scholar
  100. Srinivasan S, Gomez SM, Kumar SS, Ganesh SK, Biji KR, Senthil A et al (2008) QTLs linked to leaf epicuticular wax, physio-morphological and plant production traits under drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Growth Regul 56:245–256. Scholar
  101. Strauss SY, Zangerl AR (2002) Plant–insect interactions in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Herrera CM, Pellmyr O (eds) Plant–animal interactions: an evolutionary approach. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, pp 77–106Google Scholar
  102. Stuart BL, Harrison SK, Abernathy JR, Krieg DR, Wendt CW (1984) The response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) water relations to smooth pigweed (Amaranthus hybridus) competition. Weed Sci 32:126–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Su L, Dai Z, Li S, Xin H (2015) A novel system for evaluating drought–cold tolerance of grapevines using chlorophyll fluorescence. BMC Plant Biol 15:82. Scholar
  104. Suzuki N, Rivero RM, Shulaev V, Blumwald E, Mittler R (2014) Abiotic and biotic stress combinations. New Phytol 203:32–43. Scholar
  105. Tanji KK (2002) Salinity in the soil environment. In: Läuchli A, Lüttge U (eds) Salinity: environment—plants—molecules. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 21–51. Scholar
  106. Triky-Dotan S, Yermiyahu U, Katan J, Gamliel A (2005) Development of crown and root rot disease of tomato under irrigation with saline water. Phytopathology 95:1438–1444. Scholar
  107. Turner NC, Wright GC, Siddique KHM (2001) Adaptation of grain legumes (pulses) to water-limited environments. Adv Agron 71:193–231. Scholar
  108. Valerio M, Lovelli S, Perniola M, Di Tommaso T, Ziska L (2013) The role of water availability on weed–crop interactions in processing tomato for southern Italy. Acta Agric Scand Sect B 63:62–68. Scholar
  109. Wagner GJ (1991) Secreting glandular trichomes: more than just hairs. Plant Physiol 96(3):675–679CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Wagner G, Wang E, Shepherd R (2004) New approaches for studying and exploiting an old protuberance, the plant trichome. Ann Bot 93(1):3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: an overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223. Scholar
  112. Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A (2003) Plant responses to drought; salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218:1–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wang Y, Bao Z, Zhu Y, Hua J (2009) Analysis of temperature modulation of plant defense against biotrophic microbes. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact 22:498–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Welfare K, Yeo AR, Flowers TJ (2002) Effects of salinity and ozone, individually and in combination, on the growth and ion contents of two chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) varieties. Environ Pollut 120:397–403. Scholar
  115. Xiong L, Wang RG, Mao G, Koczan JM (2006) Identification of drought tolerance determinants by genetic analysis of root response to drought stress and abscisic acid. Plant Physiol 142:1065–1074. Scholar
  116. Xu P, Chen F, Mannas JP, Feldman T, Sumner LW, Roossinck MJ (2008) Virus infection improves drought tolerance. New Phytol 180:911–921CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Yan H, Wu L, Filardo F, Yang X, Zhao X, Fu D (2017) Chemical and hydraulic signals regulate stomatal behavior and photosynthetic activity in maize during progressive drought. Acta Physiol Plant 39(6):125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Zhan A, Schneider H, Lynch J (2015) Reduced lateral root branching density improves drought tolerance in maize. Plant Physiol 168:1603–1615. Scholar
  119. Ziska LH, Tomecek MB, Gealy DR (2010) Evaluation of competitive ability between cultivated and red weedy rice as a function of recent and projected increases in atmospheric CO2. Agron J 102:118–123. Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bilal Ahmad
    • 1
  • Aamir Raina
    • 2
    • 3
  • Samiullah Khan
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Plant Physiology Laboratory, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  2. 2.Mutation Breeding Laboratory, Department of BotanyAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia
  3. 3.Botany Section, Women’s CollegeAligarh Muslim UniversityAligarhIndia

Personalised recommendations