Advertisement

Crisis, Anxiety and Ontological Insecurity

  • Filip EjdusEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Central and Eastern European Perspectives on International Relations book series (CEEPIR)

Abstract

The central assumption within the realist canon of International Relations (IR) is that the primary goal of states is to achieve physical security, defined in terms of physical survival and power. This has been challenged by the Ontological Security Theory (OST), which is based on a premise that actors in world politics are often ready to compromise physical security and other important material gains in order to protect their sense of continuity in the world.

References

  1. Abulof, Uriel. 2009. ‘“Small Peoples”: The Existential Uncertainty of Ethnonational Communities.’ International Studies Quarterly 53 (1): 227–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abulof, Uriel. 2015. The Mortality and Morality of Nations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Adler, Emanuel, and Michael Barnett, eds. 1996. Security Communities. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, Benedict. 2006. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, Ulrich. 1992. Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  6. Berenskoetter, Felix. 2007. ‘Friends, There Are No Friends? An Intimate Reframing of the International.’ Millennium: Journal of International Studies 35: 647–676.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Berenskoetter, Felix. 2012. ‘Parameters of a National Biography.’ European Journal of International Relations 20 (1): 262–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Berenskoetter, Felix, and Bastian Giegerich. 2010. ‘From NATO to ESDP: A Social Constructivist Analysis of German Strategic Adjustment After the End of the Cold War.’ Security Studies 19 (3): 407–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brubaker, Rogers, and Frederick Cooper. 2000. ‘Beyond “Identity”.’ Theory and Society 29 (1): 1–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bull, Hedley. 1977. The Anarchical Society: A Study of Order in World Politics. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  11. Buzan, Barry. 1991. People States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era. Heartfordshire: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  12. Buzan, Barry. 2014. An Introduction to the English School of International Relations. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  13. Buzan, Barry, Ole Wæver, and Jaap de Wilde. 1998. Security: A New Framework for Analysis. London: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  14. Campbell, David. 1992. Writing Security: United States Foreign Policy and the Politics of Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  15. Chacko, Priya. 2014. ‘A New “Special Relationship”? Power Transitions, Ontological Security, and India–US Relations.’ International Studies Perspectives 15 (3): 329–346.Google Scholar
  16. Chernobrov, Dmitry. 2016. ‘Ontological Security and Public (Mis)Recognition of International Crises: Uncertainty, Political Imagining, and the Self.’ Political Psychology 37 (5): 581–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins, Randall. 2014. Interaction Ritual Chains. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Cooley, Charles Horton. 2017. Human Nature and the Social Order. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Croft, Stuart. 2012. Securitizing Islam: Identity and the Search for Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Danziger, Kurt. 1997. ‘The Historical Formation of Selves.’ In Self and Identity: Fundamental Issues, edited by Richard D. Ashmore and Lee Jussim, 137–159. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Derian, Der James. 1987. On Diplomacy: A Genealogy of Western Estrangement. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  22. Dupuis, Ann, and David C. Thorns. 1998. ‘Home, Home Ownership and the Search for Ontological Security.’ The Sociological Review 46 (1): 24–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ejdus, Filip, ed. 2017. Memories of Empire and Entry into International Society: Views from the European Periphery. Routledge: London.Google Scholar
  24. Eklundh, Emmy, Andreja Zevnik, and Emmanuel-Pierre Guittet, eds. 2017. Politics of Anxiety. Pickering & Chatto Publishers.Google Scholar
  25. Epstein, Noa. 2007. ‘Explaining the War on Terrorism from an Ontological-Security Perspective.’ MIT International Review Spring: 13–14.Google Scholar
  26. Erikson, Erik H. 1950. Childhood and Society. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  27. Erikson, Erik H. 1968. Identity: Youth and Crisis. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  28. Freud, Sigmund. 1949. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. London: The Hogarth Press.Google Scholar
  29. Freud, Sigmund. 1974. Introductory Lectures on Psychoanalysis. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  30. Giddens, Anthony. 1984. The Constitution of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  31. Giddens, Anthony. 1990. The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  32. Giddens, Anthony. 1991. Modernity and Self-Identity: Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Goffman, Ervin. 1959. The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  34. Gori, Maja. 2013. ‘The Stones of Contention: The Role of Archaeological Heritage in Israeli Palestinian Conflict.’ Archaeologies 9 (1): 213–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Grenville, Jane. 2007. ‘Conservation as Psychology: Ontological Security and the Built Environment.’ International Journal of Heritage Studies 13 (6): 447–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grenville, Jane. 2015. ‘Ontological Security in a Post-crash World—A Tale of Two Yorkshire Cities.’ Heritage & Society 8 (1): 43–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hartman, Edwin. 1976. ‘Aristotle on the Identity of Substance and Essence.’ The Philosophical Review 85 (4): 545–561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hobbes, Thomas. 2008. Leviathan. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Hughes, Judith M. 1990. Reshaping the Psychoanalytic Domain: The Work of Melanie Klein, WRD Fairbairn, and DW Winnicott. Berkley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  40. Huysmans, Jeff. 1998. ‘Security! What Do You Mean? From Concept to Thick Signifier.’ European Journal of International Relations 4 (2): 226–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Iacoboni, Marco. 2009. Mirroring People: The New Science of How We Connect with Others. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.Google Scholar
  42. Jackson, Patrick Thaddeus. 2011. The Conduct of Inquiry in International Relations: Philosophy of Science and its Implication of World Politics. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, R. Paul. 2006. ‘The Sociology of Architecture and the Politics of Building: the Discursive Construction of Ground Zero.’ Sociology 40 (3): 549–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Katzenstein, Peter J., ed. 1996. The Culture of National Security: Norms and Identity in World Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kaufmann, Eric, and Oliver Zimmer. 1998. ‘In Search of the Authentic Nation: Landscape and National Identity in Canada and Switzerland.’ Nations and Nationalism 4 (4): 483–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Keysers, Christian, and Valeria Gazzola. 2010. ‘Social Neuroscience: Mirror Neurons Recorded in Humans.’ Current Biology 20 (8): 353–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kierkegaard, Søren. 1980. The Concept of Anxiety: A Simply Psychologically Orienting Deliberation on the Dogmatic Issue of Hereditary Sin. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  48. Kierkegaard, Søren. 1983. Sickness Unto Death. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  49. Kinnvall, Catarina. 2004. ‘Globalization and Religious Nationalism: Self, Identity, and the Search for Ontological Security.’ Political Psychology 25 (5): 741–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kinnvall, Catarina. 2006. Globalization and Religious Nationalism in India. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  51. Kinnvall, Catarina, and Jennifer Mitzen. 2017. ‘An Introduction to the Special Issue: Ontological Securities in World Politics.’ Cooperation and Conflict 52 (1): 3–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kinnvall, Catarina, and Jennifer Mitzen. 2018. ‘Ontological Security and Conflict: The Dynamics of Crisis and the Constitution of Community.’ Journal of International Relations and Development 21 (4): 825–835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kinnvall, Catarina, Ian Manners, and Jennifer Mitzen. 2018. ‘Introduction to 2018 Special Issue of European Security: “Ontological (In)Security in the European Union”.’ European Security 27 (3): 249–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Krolikowski, Alanna. 2008. ‘State Personhood in Ontological Security Theories of International Relations and Chinese Nationalism: A Sceptical View.’ The Chinese Journal of International Politics 2 (1): 109–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Laing, Ronald. 2010. The Divided Self: An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  56. Lapid, Yosef, and Kratochwill Friedrich, eds. 1996. The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  57. Leach, Neil. 2006. ‘9/11.’ Diacritics 33 (3): 75–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lebow, Ned Richard. 2008. A Cultural Theory of International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Lupovici, Amir. 2012. ‘Ontological Dissonance, Clashing Identities, and Israel’s Unilateral Steps Towards the Palestinians.’ Review of International Studies 3 (4): 809–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mälksoo, Maria. 2015. ‘“Memory Must Be Defended”: Beyond the Politics of Mnemonical Security.’ Security Dialogue 46 (3): 221–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Marlow, Jim. 2002. ‘Governmentality, Ontological Security and Ideational Stability: Preliminary Observations on the Manner, Ritual and Logic of a Particular Art of Government.’ Journal of Political Ideologies 7 (2): 241–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Mattern, Janice Bially. 2005. Ordering International Politics: Identity, Crisis and Representational Force. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  63. McSweeney, Bill. 1996. ‘Identity and Security: Buzan and the Copenhagen School.’ Review of International Studies 22 (1): 81–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McSweeney, Bill. 1998. ‘Durkheim and the Copenhagen School: A Response to Buzan and Wæver.’ Review of International Studies 24 (1): 137–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. McSweeney, Bill. 1999. Security, Identity and Interest: A Sociology of International Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Mead, George Herbert. 1934. Mind, Self and Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  67. Mitzen, Jennifer. 2006a. ‘Ontological Security in World Politics: State Identity and the Security Dilemma.’ European Journal of International Relations 12 (3): 341–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Mitzen, Jennifer. 2006b. ‘Anchoring Europe’s Civilizing Identity: Habits, Capabilities and Ontological Security.’ Journal of European Public Policy 13 (2): 270–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mitzen, Jennifer. 2018. ‘Feeling at Home in Europe: Migration, Ontological Security, and the Political Psychology of EU Bordering.’ Political Psychology 39 (6): 1373–1387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Neumann, Iver B. 1996. ‘Self and Other in International Relations.’ European Journal of International Relations 2 (2): 139–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Neumann, Iver B. 1999. Uses of the Other: The East in European Identity Formation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  72. Neumann, Iver B. 2010. ‘Entry into International Society Reconceptualised: The Case of Russia.’ Review of International Studies 37 (2): 463–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Newton, Janice. 2008. ‘Emotional Attachment to Home and Security for Permanent Residents in Caravan Parks in Melbourne’. Journal of Sociology 44 (3): 219–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Padgett, Deborah K. 2007. ‘There’s No Place Like (a) Home: Ontological Security Among Persons with Serious Mental Illness in the United States.’ Social Science & Medicine 64 (9): 1925–1936.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Palmer, Catherine. 1998. ‘From Theory to Practice Experiencing the Nation in Everyday Life.’ Journal of Material Culture 3 (2): 175–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Plato. 1997. ‘Statesman.’ In Plato: Complete Works, edited by John M. Cooper, 294–358. Indianapolis: Hackett.Google Scholar
  77. Qureshi, Emran, and Michael Anthony Sells. 2003. The New Crusades: Constructing the Muslim Enemy. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Ringmar, Erik. 1996. Identity, Interest, Action: A Cultural Explanation of Sweden’s Intervention in the Thirty Years War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Roe, Paul. 2008. ‘The Value of Positive Security.’ Review of International Studies 34 (4): 777–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Ross, Andrew A.G. 2013. Mixed Emotions: Beyond Fear and Hatred in International Conflict. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  81. Rowles, Graham D. 1983. ‘Place and Personal Identity in Old Age: Observations from Appalachia.’ Journal of Environmental Psychology 3 (4): 299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rumelili, Bahar. 2015a. ‘Identity and Desecuritisation: The Pitfalls of Conflating Ontological and Physical Security.’ Journal of International Relations and Development 18 (1): 52–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rumelili, Bahar. 2015b. Conflict Resolution and Ontological Security: Peace Anxieties. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  84. Sand, Shlomo. 2010. The Invention of the Jewish People. London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  85. Sand, Shlomo. 2012. The Invention of the Land of Israel: From Holy Land to Homeland. London: Verso Books.Google Scholar
  86. Sani, Fabio, Mhairi Bowe, Marina Herrera, Cristian Manna, Tiziana Cossa, Xiulou Miao, and Yuefang Zhou. 2007. ‘Perceived Collective Continuity: Seeing Groups as Entities that Move Through Time’. European Journal of Social Psychology 37 (6): 1118–1134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schell, Herbert Samuel. 1975. History of South Dakota. Pierre: South Dakota State Historical Society Press.Google Scholar
  88. Shields, Rob. 2013. Places on the Margin: Alternative Geographies of Modernity. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Silberman, Neil Asher. 1995. ‘Promised Lands and Chosen Peoples: The Politics and Poetics of Archaeological Narrative.’ In Nationalism, Politics, and the Practice of Archaeology, edited by Philip L. Kohl, 249–262. London: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Silberman, Neil Asher. 2001. ‘If I Forget Thee, O Jerusalem: Archaeology, Religious Commemoration and Nationalism in a Disputed City, 1801–2001.’ Nations and Nationalism 7(4): 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Smith, Anthony D. 1999. Myths and Memories of the Nation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  92. Steele, Brent J. 2007. ‘Making Words Matter: The Asian Tsunami, Darfur, and “Reflexive Discourse” in International Politics.’ International Studies Quarterly 51 (4): 901–925.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Steele, Brent J. 2008. Ontological Security in International Relations: Self-Identity and the IR State. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  94. Subotić, Jelena. 2016. ‘Narrative, Ontological Security, and Foreign Policy Change.’ Foreign Policy Analysis 12 (4): 610–627.Google Scholar
  95. Taylor, Charles. 1989. Sources of the Self: The Making of the Modern Identity. Cambridge: The Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  96. Tillich, Paul. 2000. The Courage to Be. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Wæver, Ole, Barry Buzan, Morten Kelstrup, and Pierre Lemaitre. 1993. Identity, Migration and the New Security Agenda in Europe. London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  98. Weiss, Elliott. 2010. ‘Establishing Roots at Israel’s Ben Gurion Airport Garden: Landscapes of National Identity.’ National Identities 12 (2): 199–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wendt, Alexander. 1992. ‘Anarchy Is What States Make of It: The Social Construction of Power Politics.’ International Organization 46 (2): 391–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wendt, Alexander. 1994. ‘Collective Identity Formation and the International State.’ American Political Sciences Review 88 (2): 384–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wendt, Alexander. 1996. ‘Identity and Structural Change in International Politics.’ In The Return of Culture and Identity in IR Theory, edited by Yosef Lapid and Friedrich Kratochwil, 47–66. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  102. Wendt, Alexander. 1999. Social Theory of International Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  103. Wendt, Alexander. 2004. ‘The State as Person in International Theory.’ Review of International Studies 30 (2): 289–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. White, George W. 2000. Nationalism and Territory: Constructing Group Identity in Southeastern Europe. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  105. Zarakol, Ayşe. 2010. ‘Ontological (In)Security and State Denial of Historical Crimes: Turkey and Japan.’ International Relations 24 (1): 3–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Zaretsky, Eli. 2002. ‘Trauma and Dereification: September 11 and the Problem of Ontological Security.’ Constellations 9 (1): 98–105.Google Scholar
  107. Zerubavel, Yael. 1995. Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Political ScienceUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations