Traumatic Memories and the Spectrum of Their Expressions

  • Basant Pradhan
  • Narsimha R. Pinninti
  • Shanaya Rathod


Childhood adversity and trauma are increasingly being recognized as a common occurrence, and the widespread use of social media is only likely to increase the risk of this vicarious trauma. Childhood trauma, in particular, can lead to several psychiatric conditions and contributes to treatment resistance. Trauma memories have a role in the etiopathogenesis and treatment refractoriness of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and three related psychiatric conditions, i.e., complex PTSD, traumatic psychosis (a subgroup of schizophrenia), and treatment-resistant depression (TRD). TIMBER (Trauma Interventions using Mindfulness-Based Extinction and Reconsolidation) is a psychotherapeutic modality that targets the trauma memories and brings about a more fundamental change in the core psychopathology of these conditions, thereby improving the outcomes in these often difficult-to-treat conditions.


PTSD Trauma memories Depression Traumatic psychosis CBT Trauma spectrum TIMBER therapy 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Basant Pradhan
    • 1
  • Narsimha R. Pinninti
    • 2
  • Shanaya Rathod
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryCooper University HospitalCamdenUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryRowan University SOM Department of PsychiatryCherry HillUSA
  3. 3.Antelope HouseSouthern Health NHS Foundation TrustSouthamptonUK

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