Retrofitting of R-22 Air-Conditioning System with R1234ze(E)

  • Atilla G. DevecioğluEmail author
  • Vedat Oruç
Conference paper
Part of the Green Energy and Technology book series (GREEN)


In this study, the effect on energy parameters and total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) using R1234ze(E) as a substitute for R22 in an air-conditioning device was investigated. The R22 system was retrofitted with R1234ze(E) changing compressor oil. The experimental data was obtained for three different ambient temperatures (30, 35 and 40 °C). It was seen that the power consumption of R1234ze(E) was smaller than that of R22 about by 41%. Although the cooling capacity of R1234ze(E) was 50% lower, its coefficient of performance (COP) was reduced only by 5% compared to R22. Furthermore, refrigerant charging amount of R1234ze(E) was smaller by 16% than R22. The results indicated that TEWI value of R1234ze(E) was lower than that of R22 by 65% due to small GWP (global warming potential) value and proper COP of the alternative refrigerant tested in the study. Hence, it can be expressed that R1234ze(E) can be used in air-conditioners of small capacity as an alternative to R22.


GWP TEWI Retrofitting R22 R1234ze(E) 



The authors are indebted to Dicle University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Unit for the research project no. MÜHENDİSLİK 15-004.


  1. 1.
    Regulation (EU) No 517/2014 of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 April 2014 on fluorinated greenhouse gases and repealing Regulation (EC) No 842/2006. Official Journal of the European Union. Accessed 19 Dec 2017
  2. 2.
    Devecioğlu AG (2017) Seasonal performance assessment of refrigerants with low GWP as substitutes for R410A in heat pump air conditioning devices. Appl Therm Eng 125:401–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Fukuda S, Kondou C, Takata N, Koyama S (2014) Low GWP refrigerants R1234ze(E) and R1234ze(Z) for high temperature heat pumps. Int J Refrig 40:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Mendoza-Miranda JM, Mota-Babiloni A, Barragan-Cervera A, Belman-Flores JM (2013) Experimental analysis of R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a vapor compression system. Int J Refrig 36:870–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Barragan-Cervera A (2013) Experimental analysis of the internal heat exchanger influence on a vapour compression system performance working with R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a. Appl Therm Eng 59:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Barragan-Cervera A, Moles F, Peris B (2014) Drop-in energy performance evaluation of R1234yf and R1234ze(E) in a vapor compression system as R134a replacements. Appl Therm Eng 71:259–265Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jankovic Z, Atienza JS, Suarez JAM (2015) Thermodynamic and heat transfer analyses for R1234yf and R1234ze(E) as drop-in replacements for R134a in a small power refrigerating system. Appl Therm Eng 80:42–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Zilio C, Brown JS, Schiochet G, Cavallini A (2011) The refrigerant R1234yf in air conditioning systems. Energy 36:6110–6120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cho H, Lee H, Park C (2013) Performance characteristics of an automobile air conditioning system with internal heat exchanger using refrigerant R1234yf. Appl Therm Eng 61:563–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Peris B, Barragan-Cervera A, Mendoza-Miranda JM, Mota-Babiloni A, Belman JM (2014) Shell-and-tube evaporator model performance with different two-phase flow heat transfer correlations. Experimental analysis using R134a and R1234yf. Appl Therm Eng 62:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Llopis R, Sánchez D, Sanz-Kock C, Cabello R, Torrella E (2015) Energy and environmental comparison of two-stage solutions for commercial refrigeration at low temperature: fluids and systems. Appl Energy 138:133–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zheng N, Zhao L (2015) The feasibility of using vapor expander to recover the expansion work in two-stage heat pumps with a large temperature lift. Int J Refrig 56:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wang CC (2014) System performance of R-1234yf refrigerant in air-conditioning and heat pump system e an overview of current status. Appl Therm Eng 73:1412–1420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mota-Babiloni A, Navarro-Esbri J, Moles F, Barragan-Cervera A, Peris B, Verdu G (2016) A review of refrigerant R1234ze(E) recent investigations. Appl Therm Eng 95:211–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sethi A, Vera Becerra E, Yana Motta S (2016) Low GWP R134a replacements for small refrigeration (plug-in) applications. Int J Refrig 66:64–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Torella E, Cabello R, Sanchez D, Larumbe JA, Llopis R (2010) On-site study of HCFC-22 substitution for HFC non-azeotropic blends (R417A, R422D) on a water chiller of a centralized HVAC system. Energy Build 42:1561–1566CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Llopis R, Torrella E, Cabello R, Sanchez D (2012) HCFC-22 replacement with drop-in and retrofit HFC refrigerants in a two-stage refrigeration plant for low temperature. Int J Refrig 35:810–816CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Yang Z, Wu X (2013) Retrofits and options for the alternatives to HCFC-22. Energy 59:1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aprea C, Maiorino A, Mastrullo R (2014) Exergy analysis of a cooling system: experimental investigation on the consequences of the retrofit of R22 with R422D. Int J Low-Carbon Technol 9:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Oruç V, Devecioğlu AG, Berk U, Vural İ (2016) Experimental comparison of the energy parameters of HFCs used as alternatives to HCFC-22 in split type air conditioners. Int J Refrig 63:125–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Oruç V, Devecioğlu AG (2018) Retrofitting an air-conditioning device to utilize R1234yf and R1234ze(E) refrigerants as alternatives to R22. J Brazilian Soc Mech Sci Eng 40(226):1–9Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Devecioğlu AG, Oruç V (2018) Improvement on the energy performance of a refrigeration system adapting a plate-type heat exchanger and low-GWP refrigerants as alternatives to R134a. Energy 155:105–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lemmon EW, Huber ML, McLinden MO (2013) NIST Standard Reference Database 23: Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties-REFPROP, Version 9.1, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Standard Reference Data Program, GaithersburgGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    DuPont (2015) Thermodynamic properties of DuPontTM Freon® 22 (R22) Refrigerant. Technical Information. Accessed 27 Nov 2015
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
    Devecioğlu AG, Oruç V (2017) The influence of plate-type heat exchanger on energy efficiency and environmental effects of the air-conditioners using R453A as a substitute for R22. Appl Therm Eng 112:1364–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Belman-Flores JM, Rodríguez-Muñoz AP, Gutiérrez Pérez-Reguera C, Mota-Babiloni A (2017) Experimental study of R1234yf as a drop-in replacement for R134a in a domestic refrigerator. Int J Refrig 81:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringDicle UniversityDiyarbakırTurkey

Personalised recommendations